Учебно-методическое пособие infotech hardware москва 2009




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Workstation. A desktop computer that has a more powerful processor, additional memory and enhanced capabilities for performing a special group of task, such as 3D Graphics or game development.

Terminal. A visual display unit where data may be input to or output from a data communications system.

Server. A computer that has been optimized to provide services to other computers over a network. Servers usually have powerful processors, lots of memory and large hard drives.

Mainframe. In the early days of computing, mainframes were huge computers that could fill an entire room or even a whole floor. As the size of computers has diminished while the power has increased, the term mainframe has fallen out of use in favor of enterprise server. You'll still hear the term used, particularly in large companies to describe the huge machines processing millions of transactions every day.

Minicomputer. Another term rarely used anymore, minicomputers fall in between microcomputers (PCs) and mainframes (enterprise servers). Minicomputers are normally referred to as mid-range servers now.

Supercomputer. This type of computer usually costs hundreds of thousands or even millions of dollars. Although some supercomputers are single computer systems, most are comprised of multiple high performance computers working in parallel as a single system. The best known supercomputers are built by Cray Supercomputers.

Wearable. The latest trend in computing is wearable computers. Essentially, common computer applications (e-mail, database, multimedia, calendar/scheduler) are integrated into watches, cell phones, visors and even clothing!
Vocabulary
versatility эксплуатационная гибкость, универсальность

integrate интегрировать, объединять в одно целое Syn: unite

workstation рабочая станция

capability возможность; способность; производительность

enhanced улучшенный, расширенный, усовершенствованный

diminish снижаться, убывать, уменьшать, уменьшаться

Syn: decrease, lessen; ( о цене и т.п.) reduce

fall out of use выйти из употребления

comprise включать, заключать в себе

digitize оцифровывать, преобразовывать в цифровую форму

convert преобразовывать, конвертировать

handwriting recognition распознавание рукописного текста

layout схема размещения

keyboard layout раскладка клавиатуры; схема расположения клавиш на клавиатуре




  1. Put 7-10 questions to the text.

  2. Find in the text the equivalents to the following words and phrases :

производительность компьютера

плотно интегрированный

время автономной работы, период автономности

преобразовать рукописный текст

усовершенствованные характеристики

разработка компьютерных игр

носимый микрокомпьютер




  1. Define each type of computers. Use the following expressions:

take out of production снимать с производства

become obsolete устаревать

be no longer in use

fall into disuse

go out of use

fall out of use выходить из употребления [обихода]

to come into service / use входить в употребление

come to stay войти в употребление, укорениться, утвердиться;


  1. Retell the text.




  1. Different meanings of the phrasal verbs are given. Translate the following phrasal verbs and construct your own sentences:

set up

  • If you set something up, you create or arrange it.

  • If you set up a temporary structure, you place it or build it somewhere.

  • If you set up a device or piece of machinery, you do the things that are necessary for it to be able to start working.

  • If you set up home or set up shop, you buy a house or business of your own and start living or working there.

set to, set about

  • Begin doing something vigorously.

set out, set off

  • When you set out, you start a journey.



  1. Render the following text.

Главным загрязнителем окружающей среды в Великобритании оказалася суперкомпьютер национального метеоцентра.

По иронии судьбы, суперкомпьютер, использующийся Метеоцентром Великобритании для составления прогнозов погоды и определения изменений климата, оказался одним из самых крупных загрязнителей окружающей среды.

Как сообщает Вебпланета со ссылкой на газету The Daily Mail, суперкомпьютером британские синоптики обзавелись в мае этого года. Он занимает такую же площадь, как и пара футбольных полей, и, когда к 2011 году развернется в полную мощность, сможет выполнять 1000 миллиардов операций в секунду.

За несколько месяцев, прошедших с запуска, суперкомпьютер-синоптик подвергается нападкам во второй раз. Он уже ухитрился напророчить британцам жаркое лето, а те вместо желанного солнца получили традиционные дожди.

Эта громадина, стоимостью в 30 млн фунтов, мощнее ста тысяч обычных компьютеров. Но и энергии она потребляет соответственно: вместо суперкомпьютера к электросети запросто можно было бы подключить небольшой городок.

Однако потребление энергии напрямую связано с выбросами в атмосферу углекислоты. Согласно опубликованным недавно расчётам, здание Метеоцентра за год выбрасывает в атмосферу 12 000 тонн углекислого газа, то есть является одним из наиболее вредных зданий в стране. 75% от этих тонн лежат на совести компьютера-метеоролога.

Представители организации "Друзья Земли" успели усмотреть иронию в том, что компьютер, призванный предупреждать изменения климата, вносит столь активный вклад в это самое изменение.

Однако метеорологи считают, что пользы от него куда больше, чем вреда. Отказ от использования суперкомпьютера в прогнозировании погоды и изучении изменений климата они сравнивают с возвратом в средневековье.


Extended activities:

  1. Describe your own computer. Use the following expressions:

entry-level простой, начального уровня, для начинающих

Entry-level is used to describe basic low-cost versions of products such as cars or computers that are suitable for people who have no previous experience or knowledge of them.

Entry-level jobs are suitable for people who do not have previous experience or qualifications in a particular area of work.

low-end низкопроизводительный

high end высокопроизводительный, профессиональный


  1. What kind of user do you rank yourself with? Use the following expressions:

advanced user

power user подготовленный [опытный] пользователь

superuser привилегированный пользователь, имеющий доступ ко всем ресурсам системы; системный администраор

end user конечный пользователь

high-rez разбирающийся в технике человек

low-rez не разбирающийся в технике человек

naive user начинающий пользователь, новичок

lamer неумный пользователь; ламер (жарг)

luser неумелый пользователь

Unit 3

Laptops vs Desktops
In a way, the skyrocketing popularity of laptop computers is ironic. They're completely portable, and they use less power and make less noise than desktop models. But, they're often a little slower and have less graphics and sound processing power, although these differences can be too small for most users to notice.

Laptops are also more expensive than desktops. The price gap is closing, though –- laptop prices are falling faster than desktop prices, and laptop PCs actually outsold desktop models for the first time in May of 2005.

How can all the equipment found in a desktop tower fit into such a small package? And how can laptops be efficient enough to run on battery power alone?

Overall, laptop and desktop computers are very similar. They have the same basic hardware, software and operating systems. The primary difference is how their components fit together.

A desktop computer includes a motherboard, video card, hard drive and other components in a large case. The monitor, keyboard, and other peripherals connect wirelessly or with cables. Whether the case sits vertically or horizontally, it has lots of space for add-in cards, cables and air circulation.

A laptop, however, is much smaller and lighter than even the most compact PC tower. Its screen is an integrated part of the unit, as is its keyboard. Instead of a spacious case with lots of room for air circulation, a laptop uses a small, flat design in which all the pieces fit together snugly.

Because of this fundamental design difference and because of a laptop's inherent portability, components have to:


  • Fit into a compact space

  • Conserve power

  • Produce less heat than desktop components

Often, these differences make the components more expensive, which can contribute to higher laptop prices.

In the following sections, we'll examine how laptops handle these differences.

The microprocessor, or CPU, works with the operating system to control the computer. It essentially acts as the computer's brain. The CPU produces a lot of heat, so a desktop computer uses circulating air, a fan and a heat sink to draw heat off of the processor -- to cool off. Since a laptop has far less room for each of these cooling methods, its CPU usually:


  • Runs at a lower voltage and clock speed -- This reduces heat output and power consumption but slows the processor down. Most laptops also run at a higher voltage and clock speed when plugged in, and at lower settings when using the battery.

  • Mounts to the motherboard without using pins -- Pins and sockets take up a lot of room in desktop PCs. Some motherboard processors mount directly to the motherboard without the use of a socket. Others use balls instead of pins. These designs save space, but in some cases mean that the processor cannot be removed from the motherboard for replacement or upgrading.

  • Has a sleep or slow-down mode -- The computer and the operating system work together to reduce the CPU speed when the computer is not in use or when the processor does not need to run as quickly.

Laptops usually have small fans, heat sinks to help dissipate the heat from the CPU. Some higher end laptop models reduce heat even further with liquid coolant kept in channels alongside the heat pipe. Also, most laptop CPUs are near the edge of the unit. This allows the fan to move the heat directly to the outside instead of across other components.

A laptop's memory can make up for some of the reduced performance that comes from a slower processor. Some laptops have cache memory on or very near the CPU, allowing it to access data more quickly. Some also have larger busses, allowing data to move between the processor, motherboard and memory more quickly.

Like a desktop, a laptop has an internal hard disk drive, which stores the operating system, applications and data files. However, laptops generally have less disk space than desktops. A laptop hard drive is also physically smaller than that of a desktop. In addition, most laptop hard drives spin more slowly than desktop hard drives, reducing both heat and power consumption.

Desktop computers have multiple bays for installing additional drives, such as CD and DVD ROM drives. However, space in a laptop is in much shorter supply. Many laptops use a modular design, allowing a variety of drives to fit in the same bay. These drives come in three different designations:



  • Hot swappable - The computer can stay on while changing the drive.

  • Warm swappable - The computer can stay on while changing the drive, but the corresponding bus (the path the drive uses to send data to the CPU) must be inactive.

  • Cold swappable - The computer must be off during the swap.

A graphics processing unit (GPU) is a microprocessor that handles the calculations necessary for 3-D graphics rendering. Like a CPU, a GPU produces a lot of heat. Most laptops have graphics capability built into the motherboard or have smaller graphics cards with a GPU designed specifically for laptop use. Laptops frequently share memory between the CPU and the GPU, saving space and reducing power consumption.

Many people don't notice a laptop's reduced graphics performance. Laptops have plenty of processing power for Web surfing and productivity applications. However, they may struggle with the latest 3-D games. A few specialty laptops, designed for gaming enthusiasts, include more powerful GPUs and additional video memory.

A laptop displays its graphics on a liquid crystal display (LCD) screen. Most screens measure between 12 and 17 inches, and the size of the screen affects the overall size of the laptop.

Most laptops also have sound cards or integrated sound processing on the motherboard as well as small, built-in speakers. However, there is generally not enough space inside a laptop for a top-of-the-line sound card or a high-quality speaker. Gaming enthusiasts and audiophiles can supplement their laptops' sound capabilities with external sound controllers, which use USB or FireWire ports to connect to the laptop.

Laptops and desktops both run on electricity. However, unlike a desktop computer, a laptop is portable and can run on batteries alone.

LiIon batteries are the current standard for laptop computers. They are light and have long life spans. They can be charged randomly, and won't overheat if overcharged. They are also thinner than any other battery available for laptops, making them ideal for the new ultra-thin notebooks. LiIon batteries can last for anything from about 950 up to 1200 charges. Many laptops with LiIon batteries claim to have a 5-hour battery life, but this measurement can vary greatly depending on how the computer is used.

Many people build custom PCs for themselves or customers. These home-made computers, called whiteboxes, represent a significant portion of the computer market. Some people also modify their computers for cosmetics or performance. This is called modding. But what about building or modding a laptop?

A modded or homemade laptop is called a whitebook. Whitebooks represent about 5 percent of the notebook market right now, and this number is slowly rising. The industry has done a pretty good job of keeping end users out of laptops. They've made it difficult to open, modify and get parts for a laptop. In addition, opening the laptop chassis voids the manufacturer's warranty in most cases.

It is still difficult to find parts to build a laptop from the ground up, but vendors like ASUS and ECS allow some customers to order blank laptop shells. They are especially open to resellers who build whitebooks and sell them to customers. In addition, people can mod or upgrade what came with the shell. Companies like TechStyle have made a business of it.

A laptop shell consists of:



  • Chassis

  • Motherboard

  • Optical drive

  • Display

  • Keyboard

  • Graphics Card

This means that anyone wanting to build a whitebook must find:

  • Microprocessor

  • RAM

  • Wireless card

At this point, there are no real standards for the form factor (shape and design) of laptop parts. Processors designed for laptops are available for sale, but finding a motherboard for those chips is a different story. Hard drives are pretty standard, but other parts may take some digging.

In 1979, William Moggridge of Grid Systems Corporation created the first functioning portable computer: The Grid Compass Computer 1109. NASA bought a handful of them at $800 apiece for use in the space program.

Other companies, like Gavilan Computer and Apple, introduced other portable computers in the following years. The first commercially viable machine, however, was the IBM PC Convertible, introduced in 1986.

Weighing in at a hefty 12 lbs (5.4 kg), the PC Convertible sold for $3,500. It was the first portable computer with the clamshell design used in today's laptops. The success of the PC Convertible was the catalyst for competitors like Compaq and Toshiba to switch to the clamshell design in their portable computers. And so began the era of the laptop computer.


Vocabulary
processing power производительность (системы), вычислительная мощность

graphics processing обработка графических данных

sound power акустическая мощность

equipment аппаратура, оборудование, оснащение

cabinet, chassis, system unit системный блок

cabinet, chassis, enclosure,

housing, package, case корпус

tower башня, вертикальный корпус, одна из модификаций корпуса

add-in, built-in, embedded,

integrated встроенный, дополнительный

power мощность

produce heat нагревать

overheat перегрев, перегревать(ся)

cool = cool down; cool off охлаждаться, остывать

voltage электрическое напряжение

high voltage высокое напряжение

low voltage низкое напряжение

clock speed тактовая частота; измеряется в мегагерцах

power consumption потребляемая мощность

setting установка; регулирование; регулировка; настройка

settings установочные параметры, параметры настройки

mount устанавливать; монтировать, собирать

mounting монтаж, сборка; установка

plug in подключать, встраивать

pin контакт, штырёк

ball шаровой элемент; шар

socket гнездо, сокет, разъём

sleep mode режим ожидания

run проход, прогон (программы)

make up (for) компенсировать

performance производительность, быстродействие, эффективность

bus шина


application приложение, прикладная программа

productivity application рабочее приложение (в отличие от "игрушки")

memory module модуль памяти, модуль запоминающего устройства

spin (spun, spun), rotate крутить(ся), вращаться

bay отсек для установки встраиваемых [дисковых] накопителей

modular design блочная конструкция; модульная конструкция

hot swapping "горячая" замена, замена во время работы (без выключения электропитания)

warm swapping "теплая" замена

capability возможность; способность; производительность; характеристика

GPU


( Graphics Processing Unit) графический процессор

rendering визуализация; предоставление (помощи и т. п.); перевод, изложение; интерпретация

controller контроллер микросхема

FireWire стандарт высокопроизводительной последовательной шины IEEE 1394

speaker динамик ПК, акустическая колонка

LiIon batteries литиум ионная

power supply ( PS) источник [блок] питания

life span срок службы; долговечность, жизненный отрезок

charge заряд, заряжать

overcharge перезаряжать, перегружать

overcharge of battery избыточный заряд аккумуляторной батареи

recharge подзаряжать

whitebook, whitebox немарочная сборка( о компьютере)

modding (mod),

modification модификация

void делать недействительным, уничтожать, аннулировать

clam-shell складной (о конструкции корпуса компьютера)


  1. Answer the following questions:

How can laptops be efficient enough to run on battery power alone?

What is the primary difference between laptops and desktops?

What contribute to higher laptop prices?

What distinguishes the laptop CPU?

How can laptop's memory make up for some of the reduced CPU performance?



  1. Find in the text the equivalents to the following words and phrases :

ценовой разрыв сокращается

продажи портативных компьютеров фактически превысили продажи настольных

радикальное отличие состоит в способе сборки

соединять при помощи проводов и беспроводным способом

встроенный экран

работать с более низким напряжением и тактовой частотой

замедлять работу процессора

работать от сети

работать на батарейках

вскрытие корпуса приводит к аннулированию гарантии




  1. Match the terms to the definitions:



Terms

Definitions

Hardware

a printed circuit board into which other boards can be plugged

Software

a combination of shape and design

operating system

a disk made from a magnetic material used a storage device

motherboard

the programs and routines which allow a computer to operate; it usually consists of a group of programs which coordinate the software and hardware of a computer system

hard disk

units connected to the CPU

peripherals

the physical units that make up a computer system

Clock

a type of memory that is used in high-performance systems, inserted between the processor and memory

cache memory

an electronic device, generally a stable oscillator, that generates a repetitive series of pulses

form factor

programs and instructions executed by the computer




  1. Make up a plan and retell the text.




  1. Different meanings of the phrasal verbs are given. Translate the following phrasal verbs and construct your own sentences:

fit in

  • If you manage to fit a person or task in, you manage to find time to deal with them.

  • If you fit in as part of a group, you seem to belong there because you are similar to the other people in it. Be socially compatible with other members of a group.

fit in, fit into

  • Be in harmony with other elements in a situation. Constitute part of a situation or larger structure.

fit out, fit up

  • If you fit someone or something out, or you fit them up, you provide them with equipment and other things that they need.

make out

  • If you try to make something out, you try to understand it or decide whether or not it is true.

make up

  • The people or things that make up something are the members or parts that form that thing.

  • Be reconciled after a quarrel.

make up for

  • To make up for a bad experience or the loss of something means to make the situation better or make the person involved happier. Syn: compensate



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