Учебно-методическое пособие infotech hardware москва 2009




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Render the following text.

Нужно ли торопиться и менять настольный компьютер на ноутбук?
Действительно ли ноутбуки вытесняют настольные компьютеры? Попробуем разобраться, чем хороши и плохи более современные решения.

Ни для кого не секрет, что появившиеся сравнительно недавно ноутбуки заметно потеснили настольные компьютеры. Попробуем разобраться, каковы преимущества и недостатки более современных решений.


Главное, что отличает ноутбук от настольного компьютера, – его мобильность. Небольшой вес и размер позволяют носить его с собой, взять в другой город. Нет необходимости подсоединять к ноутбуку внешние устройства; благодаря аккумулятору он может функционировать в условиях отсутствия электросети. Кроме того, обычно он имеет встроенный Wi-Fi, что позволяет подключаться к беспроводному Интернету.
В то же время ноутбук стоит гораздо дороже десктопа. Кроме того, ноутбук обычно имеет ограничения по мощности, и даже самый лучший из них уступает в мощности качественным настольным компьютерам. В десктопе можно модернизировать те или иные составляющие, в то время как для ноутбука эта возможность не всегда существует. В отдельных случаях возникают сложности, связанные с совместимостью разных операционных систем. Из-за того, что лэптоп очень небольшой по размеру, на его клавиатуре меньше клавиш, чем в настольном компьютере, и пользоваться ею не так удобно.

Extended Activities
Expressing your Opinion
Useful expressions:

focus on, discuss, examine, consider,

view, take up рассматривать, изучать

express, give, offer, pass, state an opinion выражать мнение

form an opinion about составить мнение о

have a high opinion of быть высокого мнения

have a low opinion of быть низкого мнения

have no settled opinions не иметь определенных взглядов

have no opinion of не иметь мнения о (ком-л., чем-л.)

in my opinion по моему мнению, по-моему

conflicting opinion противоречивое мнение

considered opinion обоснованное мнение

groundless, baseless opinion необоснованное мнение

opposing opinion противоположное мнение

an opinion about, on мнение по поводу

rate, value судить о ценности, значимости




    1. PC notebook sales outpace desktop sales. Will notebooks displace desktops from the personal computer market? State your opinion.

Unit 4

Notebooks vs Netbooks vs Ultra-mobile PCs
­­­In early 2008, the mobile computer landscape was dominated by laptop computers. There were a few alternatives to traditional laptops -- tablet PCs, advanced PDAs and even a few smartphones could perform many basic computing tasks. But the laptop computer set the standard for mobile computing -- some companies offered laptops that were nearly as powerful as their desktop counterparts.

A year later, the traditional laptop faces some competition in the mobile computing market. It can be confusing for consumers -- there's a host of new terms and categories to take into consideration when shopping for a mobile computer. There are laptops, notebooks, netbooks and ultra-mobile PCs. But what's the difference? Are the terms interchangeable? Are they well-defined?

The answer to these questions depends upon whom you ask. One person may call a particular PC a netbook while another insists it's a notebook. There's no universal definition upon which you can rely.

There are, however, some general guidelines we can use. Laptop computers, notebooks and netbooks use the same basic form factor -- the main differentiator is size. That form factor is a computer with two main parts: a screen and a ­keyboard attached by hinges. In general, netbook computers are smaller and lighter than notebook computers, which in turn are smaller and lighter than laptops. But there are no specific size or weight classes for computers. So, for example, if the computer has an 11-inch (27.9 centimeter) screen, is it a netbook or a notebook? That's where people disagree.

­Let's start with laptops and notebooks. Some people use the terms interchangeably because many of the laptops on the market are smaller and lighter than their predecessors. As laptop technology evolves, manufacturers are able to pack more power into a smaller package. The notebook format is becoming the norm.

But there are still some laptops that are too large to be considered notebooks. The Lenovo ThinkPad W700ds has a 17-inch (43.2-centimeter) main screen and a retractable 10-inch (25.4-centimeter) secondary screen. It weighs 11 pounds (about 5 kilograms) and is 2.1 inches (5.3 centimeters) thick. Gaming laptops can also be on the large side -- Toshiba's Qosmio X305 weighs 9 pounds and has a 17-inch (43.2-centimeter) screen. While these computers are portable, you probably don't want to lug them around all day long.

Notebook computers are lighter than the laptops we looked at in the previous section. They usually have screens ranging from 12 to 17 inches (30.5 to 43.2 centimeters) and weigh around 5 to 6 pounds (2.3 to 2.7 kilograms). Ideally, a notebook computer has the same processing power and features as larger laptop computers. Many manufacturers charge a premium price for the convenience of a small computer that packs a big punch.

The Lenovo ThinkPad X300 is a notebook computer. It has a 13.3-inch (33.8 centimeter) screen and weighs only 3.2 pounds (1.5 kilograms), making it a lightweight in the notebook category. When closed, it measures only .9 inches (2.3 centimeters) thick. It also has many of the features you'd find in a typical laptop computer: a WiFi card, a Bluetooth antenna, a dual-core processor, 1 gigabyte (GB) of RAM and a 64-GB solid-state hard drive. It also has a DVD drive and an integrated Web camera. It comes with the Windows Vista operating system.

Netbook computers are relative newcomers to the computer market. The general definition for a netbook computer is that they are smaller, less powerful and less expensive than notebook computers.

Netbooks and cloud computing go hand-in-hand. A cloud computing network is a collection of servers that provides data storage and processing power over the Internet. Ideally, a cloud computing service eliminates the need for an expensive, powerful personal computer. The machines on the Internet do all the hard work for you.

When they first began to get attention in early 2008, netbooks seemed to contradict the popular philosophy in the computer market. For many years, the prevailing strategy for computer consumers was to find the fastest, most powerful computer in their price range. But consumers are beginning to understand that they don't necessarily need a bleeding-edge computer for most of the tasks they perform. And as the Web takes a more prevalent role in computing, the processing requirements for consumer computers become less demanding.

Though people disagree on specific metrics for netbooks, in general they have screens smaller than 12 inches (30.5 centimeters) and weigh only one or two pounds (.5 to .9 kilograms). Typically they cost between $300 and $600. An example is the Asus EEE PC 4G. It weighs two pounds (.9 kilograms) and has a seven-inch (17.8 centimeter) screen. The processor is an Intel Celeron M 353/630 megahertz chip and it has 512 megabytes of RAM. It comes with a 4 GB solid-state hard drive and costs around $400.

Tha­t leaves us with the ultra-mobile PC (UMPC). Technically, the term applies specifically to a Microsoft product. It's a tablet computer -- imagine a computer screen without a keyboard. The interface for most UMPCs is a touchscreen with a stylus and an array of physical keys set along the sides of the screen. These tablets tend to be light like netbooks and feature small screens in the 4- to 7-inch (10.2- to 17.8-centimeter) range.

Some UPMC models have a full QWERTY keyboard that you can slide out from under the screen. Others rely exclusively on the touchscreen interface. Most run on the Windows Vista operating system. While UMPCs are more portable than notebooks, they are more expensive than netbooks.

Samsung's Q1UP-XP Ultra Mobile PC is a good example. It has a seven-inch (17.8-centimeter) LCD touchscreen display and weighs just two pounds (.9 kilograms). It has a split QWERTY keyboard with keys on either side of the screen. It's also WiFi and Bluetooth compatible. The computer has a microphone and can serve as a voice over Internet protocol (VOIP) device. The price tag for the Q1UP-XP at the time of this writing is $1,299.

But some people use the term UMPC to describe all small computer devices, including netbooks. Others use it to differentiate pricey mobile computers from inexpensive netbooks. For example, while Apple calls its MacBook Air product a notebook, others say it doesn't fit the notebook category. The Air is thin enough to fit inside a standard manila envelope and features a 13.3-inch (33.8-centimeter) LED backlit display. But its processor is less powerful than other MacBook models. It has limited storage space and only a few ports. The Air also costs a pretty penny: the starting price is $1,799.

The Air's design, processing power and price make it tricky to categorize. That's why some journalists use the term UMPC to describe devices that are portable but are more powerful and expensive than netbooks. Using this terminology, a netbook is small, inexpensive and has modest processing power. A UMPC is small, more expensive and generally has a better processor than a netbook.

New products will blur the lines further between netbooks, notebooks and UPMCs. At CES 2009, Asus showed off the Eee T91 and T101H computers. These devices are a cross between tablets and netbooks. They feature screens mounted on a pivot -- you can turn the screen around and fold it back over the keyboard. A touchscreen interface allows you to use the netbook as a tablet PC. These products will hit the market in 2009. At the time of this article, Asus has not made an official announcement regarding the price of these products.

Smartphones also have the potential to make the mobile computing landscape more confusing. As smartphones become more powerful, they begin to fill the same niche as netbooks. In general, smartphones range in price from around $199 to more than $900. They're very portable and multifunctional. Companies that design applications for smartphones may incorporate more cloud computing strategies in their products in the near future.

At the same time, some netbook manufacturers are partnering with cell phone carriers to include cellular technology in their products. Some netbooks can access 3G, EDGE and other cellular networks for data transfers. While data transfers using these protocols tend to be slower than WiFi, the infrastructure for cellular networks has a stronger foundation than WiFi networks.

One thing is for certain: mobility is important. People want to be able to access applications and data any time and anywhere. They may want a device that has its own spacious hard drive or a netbook they can use to log into a remote data storage service -- or they may not know what they want.

While netbooks accounted for a significant percentage of computer sales during the 2008 holiday season, the return rate on netbooks is relatively high. That may be due to consumers misunderstanding the purpose of netbooks. The devices aren't as powerful as notebooks, laptops and desktop computers. They also tend to have smaller keyboards and some people have trouble typing during an extended computing session. And people who choose netbooks running on Linux may become frustrated with an unfamiliar operating system (OS).

Despite the return rates, the popularity of netbooks and other portable computing devices continues to grow. The convenience of these devices coupled with tough economic times may mean the days of the super-powerful and expensive desktop PC are numbered.
Vocabulary
counterpart эквивалент; аналог; прототип

interchangeable заменяемый, сменный, равнозначный

well-defined чёткий, определённый

hinge шарнир

evolve эволюционировать, развиваться

retractable выдвижной

charge a price назначить цену

bleeding-edge новейший, передовой

VoIP передача голоса по IP-протоколу

backlit display дисплей с задней подсветкой экрана

blur the lines стирать грань

access доступ

rate of return уровень доходности, доходность, рентабельность

log in зарегистр ироваться, войти в систему

remote дистанционный, удаленный


  1. Put 7-10 questions to the text.

  2. Find in the text the equivalents to the following words and phrases :

современные КПК

вычислительная задача

принимать во внимание

взаимозаменяемые термины

технология развивается

выдвижной вспомогательный экран

экраны в диапазоне 12-17 дюймов

назначить цену

противоречить

доминирующая стратегия

новейший компьютер

термин применяется по отношению к продукции Майкрософт




  1. Find in the text the definitions to the terms laptop, notebook, netbook, UMPC, and tablet PC. Do you agree or disagree with the above-mentioned definitions? Discuss it with a partner.




  1. Make up a plan and retell the text.




  1. Render the following text.

Нетбук — это отличное решение, если вам часто нужен компьютер под рукой, но нет желания постоянно носить с собой громоздкий и большой ноутбук. Согласитесь, что в вашей сумке всегда найдётся место для устройства размерами даже меньше листа А4 и весом до от 1 до 1,5 кг. Да и средняя цена нетбука в 8−15 тыс. рублей гораздо ниже цены хорошего ноутбука, стоимость которого только начинается от 27 тыс. рублей.

Клавиатура устройства хоть и меньше стандартных размеров, но это дело привычки, и спустя несколько дней работы на нетбуке вы сможете так же спокойно набирать тексты как и делали это на стандартной клавиатуре.

Небольшой тачпад — минус не только нетбуков, но и стандартных ноутбуков. Подключите внешнюю мышку — работать станет удобнее, да и весит она немного чтобы брать её с собой.

Ещё одно неудобство, как может показаться сначала — это отсутствие встроенного привода CD/DVD-ROM в нетбуках. Но зато в них есть 2−3 USB порта для подключения флешек или внешних жёстких дисков, так что с хранением информации проблем быть не должно.

Из всего вышесказанного, можно сделать вывод, что нетбук идеально подойдёт для путешествий и использования вне дома или офиса в качестве второго компьютера. Он портативен, обладает маленькими весом и размерами, а также небольшой ценой. Нетбук удобно использовать для серфинга в Интернете, общения в ICQ и Skype, работой с текстом и таблицами. Просмотр фильмов и прослушивание музыки также можно осуществлять на нетбуке, а с помощью VGA- выхода выводить изображение на внешний проектор или монитор. Нетбук будет универсальным помощником, как студенту, так и часто путешествующему бизнесмену, выполняя все обычные задачи, которые требуются от компьютера.


Extended Activities


    1. Which computer will dominate the market? State your own opinion.




    1. Compare different types of portable computers you are familiar with.


Comparing and Contrasting

A consideration or estimate of the similarities or dissimilarities between two devices
compare to ставить наравне, уподоблять

compare with соответствовать (требованиям, стандартам) ; выдерживать сравнение с (чем-л., кем-л.)

beyond compare

beyond (all )comparison вне (всякого) сравнения

bear comparison with

stand comparison with выдержать сравнение с

There is no comparison between them. Их невозможно сравнивать.

contrast (n) ['kɔntrɑːst] контраст; полярность; противоположность

contrast (v) [kən'trɑːst] противопоставлять, сравнивать

by contrast with smth по контрасту с чем-л.

present a contrast являть собой противоположность

in contrast to / with smth в противоположность чему-л.; по сравнению с чем-л.



Section 2

Computer Basics
Unit 1

Motherboard
The base of operations for the brains of a computer is the motherboard. The motherboard serves as a literal foundation for many of the other elements inside your computer. It's a large printed circuit board. The motherboard provides the connections and sockets that let other components communicate with each other. Motherboards come in different shapes and sizes -- a motherboard in a laptop computer might not look like one from a desktop PC.

The computer brain is a microprocessor called the central processing unit (CPU). The CPU is a chip containing millions of tiny transistors. It's the CPU's job to perform the calculations necessary to make the computer work -- the transistors in the CPU manipulate the data. You can think of a CPU as the decision maker.

Another critical component in computers is memory. The two most important kinds of memory are read-only memory (ROM) and random access memory (RAM). Computers can read data stored in ROM, but can't write new data to it. With RAM, computers can read from and write to that memory. Without computer memory, every calculation on a computer would be stateless. That means there'd be no way to preserve information from one moment to the next and every process would start on a clean slate. That's not useful if you want to create complex programs.

Many desktop PCs have the capacity for additional RAM. The user simply has to open the computer and plug RAM chips into the appropriate sockets on the motherboard. But other computers are sealed systems -- you aren't meant to open them and make changes so you're pretty much stuck with what you've got.

A chip called the Basic Input/Output System (BIOS) works closely with the CPU. BIOS is a specific kind of ROM. If you think of the CPU as the brain of the computer, then you might consider BIOS to be the spine. It's the job of BIOS to handle interactions between the software running on a computer and the machine's hardware components.

The motherboard, CPU, ROM, RAM and BIOS handle most of the heavy lifting for computer processes. They're in charge of allocating resources to applications so that they run smoothly. They also accept input from devices like keyboards, mice and other computer accessories.

So what else is inside your computer?


  • Power supplies and batteries

  • Drives

  • Modems and Wi-Fi cards

  • Sound and graphics cards

  • Cooling systems

The power supply component provides a supply of electricity throughout the rest of the computer. When you plug your computer into a power socket, electricity flows from the cord into a shielded box containing a transformer. The transformer's job is to convert the incoming electricity into the proper voltage for each part of the machine that needs electricity. If you're using a laptop, some of that power goes to the laptop's battery to charge it. When unplugged, a laptop has to rely on the charge inside the battery for its power needs.

Computers have a small battery inside them that's always on, even when you power down the rest of the computer. This battery helps preserve data stored in a special chip in charge of maintaining information about your computer's hardware. It also powers a clock, which is why your computer should keep time accurately even if you turn it off or unplug it.

The drives in a computer are the devices that let you store and recall data and applications. Most computers have a hard drive -- either a series of thin platters that store information using magnetic recordings or a solid state hard drive with no moving parts. In either case, the hard drive allows you to store information and applications directly to your computer.



CD-ROM or DVD-ROM drives allow you to use media storage devices like compact discs or DVDs with your computer.

Modems are machines that let computers communicate with other computing systems. Modems are closely related to wireless cards, which are radio transceivers that can send and receive data through a specific frequency of radio waves.

Sound and graphics cards are pretty self-explanatory. They give your computer the ability to display graphics or play sounds and music. Not all cards are the same -- some support more software formats than others. Graphics cards in particular come in a wide variety of specs.

Understanding PC Buses

Think of a bus as the electronic highway on which data travels within a computer, from one component to another. Basically, it's the conduit used by your entire system to communicate with your CPU. A bus is a collection of wires and connectors through which the data is transmitted. When used in reference to personal computers, the term bus usually refers to what is commonly called the system bus. This bus is considered the first bus on the electronic highway and it connects the CPU to the main memory (RAM) on the motherboard. All buses consist of two parts -- an address bus and a data bus.

The data bus transfers actual data whereas the address bus transfers information about the data and where it should go. The address bus is used to identify particular locations (addresses) in main memory. The width of the address bus (that is, the number of wires) determines how many unique memory locations can be addressed. Modern PCs and Macs have as many as 36 address lines, which enables them theoretically to access 64 GB of main memory. However, the actual amount of memory that can be accessed is usually much less than this theoretical limit due to chipset and motherboard limitations.

The size of a bus, known as its width, is important because it determines how much data can be transmitted at one time. The bus size actually indicates the number of wires in the bus. For example, a 32-bit bus has 32 wires or connectors that transmit 32 bits simultaneously (referred to as  in parallel). It would be considered "32-bits wide." A 16-bit bus has 16 wires or connectors that can transmit 16 bits of data in parallel. You would say it is "16-bits wide."


Vocabulary
printed circuit board печатная плата

plug подключать, вставлять в разъём

socket гнездо, (проф) сокет

BIOS БИОС, базовая система ввода / вывода

power supply (PS) источник питания, блок питания

drive дисковод

Wi-Fi (Wireless Fidelity) стандарт Wi-Fi на беспроводную связь

cord (эл) шнур, кабель

shielded защищённый

charge заряжать

power (n) мощность, энергия

power (v) снабжать энергией; питать (электро)энергией

frequency = f частота

transceiver устройство для подключения хост-устройства к средствам передачи данных, напр. хост-компьютера к локальной сети, трансивер

bus шина


system bus системная шина

address bus шина адреса, адресная шина

data bus шина данных

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