Учебно-методическое пособие infotech hardware москва 2009




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Новая технология применима для создания плоских экранов практически для любых устройств: от мобильных телефонов до широкоформатных мониторов.





  1. Render the following text.


LG делает ставку на формат 16:9


Рынок мониторов снова переживает «эпоху перемен». Не успел завершиться переход на широкий формат, как возникла новая проблема: за каким соотношением сторон будущее — 16:10 или 16:9? Вопрос не праздный, учитывая тенденцию массового внедрения Full HD-устройств и меньшую себестоимость матриц 16:9 по сравнению с конкурентным форматом. В то же время распространено мнение, что при работе с компьютерными приложениями мониторы с соотношением сторон 16:9 менее удобны, чем 16:10.

Ведущие производители мониторов ищут выход из сложившейся ситуации, предлагая модели обоих типов, а также обеспечивая возможность поворота монитора на 90 градусов, чтобы предоставить пользователю удобство работы в различных ситуациях.






На конференции, посвященной выходу новых линеек мониторов, компания LG Electronics подтвердила тенденцию перехода на формат 16:9, предложив 7 новых линеек мониторов, в том числе новые устройства со SMART-функциями, направленными на повышение эргономики.




Увеличение доли мониторов 16:9, по мнению LG, вызвано распространением HD-контента (вещание, игры) и появлением устройств, поддерживающих этот формат (видеокамеры, приставки).
В нынешнем году мониторы с соотношением сторон 16:9 составляют 55% всей линейки мониторов LG. Компания планирует выпустить 8 серий таких мониторов, которые включают 48 моделей.

SMART-технологии стали дополнением к FUN-функциям, представленными компанией LG в прошлом году. Новые технологии SMART включают 4 основных компонента. Функция автояркости (Auto Bright) обеспечивает автоматическую регулировку яркости в зависимости от внешнего освещения. Режим кино (Cinema Mode) облегчает просмотр видеороликов на онлайн-сервисах — в момент начала проигрывания видеоролика вся остальная поверхность экрана частично затемняется. В число SMART-компонент также входит таймер, который напоминает о необходимости делать перерывы в работе, и бесконтактный сенсор для управления настройками монитора.


Extended Activities

  1. Compare CRT and LCD monitors.

  2. Describe new monitor technologies.

Unit 2

Printers Types
The main printer categories are: - laser printers, ink-jets, dot-matrix, multifunctional, etc. Normally home computer users will use ink-jets as they are relatively cheap but superior in quality to dot-matrix. Laser printers are more expensive and more commonly found in the offices.

Ink-jets(bubble-jets) printers spray ionized tiny drops of ink onto a page to create an image.  Almost all ink-jets offer a color option as a standard, in varying degrees of resolution. Ink-jet printers are capable of producing high quality print which almost matches the quality of a laser printer. A standard ink-jet printer has a resolution of 300 dots per inch, although newer models have improved on that.  As a rule color link-jet printers can also be used as a regular black and white printer.

Laser printers operate by shining a laser beam to produce an image on a drum. The drum is then rolled through toner, and the electrically charged portions of the drum pick up ink. Finally, using a combination of heat and pressure, the ink on the drum is transferred onto the page. Laser printers produce output at a great speed and with a very high resolution. In terms of speed and image quality they are preferred by experts. Color laser printers use the same toner-based printing process as black and white laser printers, except that they combine four different toner colors.  Color laser printers can also be used as a regular black and white laser printer.

LED/LCD printers  are types of electro photographic printers that are identical to laser printers in most ways. Both LCD (liquid crystal display) and LED (light-emitting diode) printers use a light source instead of a laser to create an image on a drum. In most contexts, "laser printer" covers LCD and LED printers as well.  The print process is almost identical, but LED printers use Light Emitting Diodes to charge the drum, and the other uses Liquid Crystals. These printers produce a very high quality text and graphics print out.

Impact (Dot-matrix) printers use a set of closely spaced pins to print letters or other characters on a page. These printers actually impact the page to print a character, much like a typewriter. Dot-matrix printers vary in terms of speed and the number of pins they have. They can run at a speed anywhere between 50 and 500 cps (characters per second). The number of pins, which can vary between 9 to 24, determines the quality of the print job.  Dot matrix printers are commonly used for printing invoices, purchase orders, shipping forms, labels, and other multi-part forms.

Solid Ink printers are page printers that use solid wax ink sticks in a "phase-change" process.  Solid-ink printers offer better color consistency than do most technologies, with little variation caused by changes in temperature, humidity, or type of paper. Solid ink machines have better reliability, because they have fewer components in comparison, for example with color laser printers .

Plotters are large-scale printers that are very accurate at reproducing line drawings. They are commonly used for technical drawings.



Digital Photo printers Many middle range printers are now able to print photo quality images. Photo print heads allow a greater resolution to be achieved to improve photo image quality. Photo ink jet printers expand their range by adding additional ink colors, usually light cyan and light magenta.

Network printer is a printer that provides output  capabilities to all network users.

Multifunction printers: combine top-quality color ink-jet or laser printing with faxing, color copying and color scanning telephoning - all in one space-saving machine.

EZ CD/DVD Printers: provide a low cost way to create professional printed CD-Rs and DVD-Rs. Instead of writing on the CD or applying labels, you can print directly on the CD surface. With high speed capabilities, a full color image can be printed directly on the top surface of your CDs in less than 1 minute.

3D Printers. The ZPrinter 310 System creates physical models directly  from computer-aided design system  (“CAD”) and other digital data in hours instead of days. The printer is fast, versatile and simple, allowing engineers to produce a range of concept models and functional test parts quickly and inexpensively. The system is ideal for an office environment or educational institution, providing product developers easy access to a 3D Printer.


The Controller: The page description language

The primary printer languages these days are Hewlett Packard's Printer Command Language (PCL) and Adobe's Postscript. Both of these languages describe the page in vector form -- that is, as mathematical values of geometric shapes, rather than as a series of dots (a bitmap image). The printer itself takes the vector images and converts them into a bitmap page. With this system, the printer can receive elaborate, complex pages, featuring any sort of font or image. Also, since the printer creates the bitmap image itself, it can use its maximum printer resolution.

Some printers use a graphical device interface (GDI) format instead of a standard PCL. In this system, the host computer creates the dot array itself, so the controller doesn't have to process anything -- it just sends the dot instructions on to the laser.

But in most laser printers, the controller must organize all of the data it receives from the host computer. This includes all of the commands that tell the printer what to do -- what paper to use, how to format the page, how to handle the font, etc. For the controller to work with this data, it has to get it in the right order.


Vocabulary
ink-jet printer струйный принтер

laser printer лазерный принтер

laser beam лазерный луч

dot-matrix printer матричный принтер

pin игла [печатающей головки] матричного принтера solid ink printer принтер с твёрдым [термопластичным] красителем

plotter плоттер, графопостроитель

line drawing чертёж в виде линий

technical drawing технический чертёж

flatbed plotter планшетный графопостроитель

drum plotter барабанный графопостроитель

cps (characters per second); [число] символов (знаков) в секунду, единица измерения скорости печати матричных принтеров

ppm (pages per minute); [число] страниц в минуту, единица измерения скорости печати лазерных и струйных принтеров



    1. Put 7-10 questions to the text.

    2. Answer the following questions:

What unit is used to measure the image quality?

What unit is used to measure the printing speed?




    1. Find in the text the equivalents to the following words and phrases:

струйные принтеры превосходят по качеству матричные

обычно встречаются

сопоставимы по качеству

совершенствовать

более надежный


    1. Define the following terms: ink-jets(bubble-jets) printers, laser printer, LED/LCD printer, impact (dot-matrix) printer, solid ink printer, plotter, digital photo printer, network printer, multifunction printer, EZ CD/DVD Printers, 3D Printers.

    2. Compare all types of above-mentioned printers in terms of cost, speed, noise, output quality.

    3. Render the following text.

Компания 3D Systems Corporation объявила о намерении выпустить "объемный" принтер InVision LD 3-D. Он создан израильской фирмой Solidimension Ltd, но распространяться будет под брендом 3D Systems. Ориентировочная стоимость принтера US$22900, что, по мнению фирмы, является очень "доступной" ценой. Новинка способна печатать сложные геометрические фигуры, созданные в программе 3-D CAD, собирая их из тонких слоев VisiJet LD100, формируемых в монолитную конструкцию. Процесс не является вредным и вполне может проводиться в офисе, а изделия получаются сухими, чистыми и не требуют дополнительной обработки. Очевидно, что в первую очередь такой принтер предназначен для моделирования. Он также может эффективно использоваться в ВУЗах для изучения инженерного дела.



Extended Activities


    1. Describe draws and drawbacks of your printer.

    2. When choosing a type of printer, you first must determine your printing needs. When comparing printers, consider the real cost of use, not just the purchase prise.

    1. If you expect to print color documents or photographs what printer will most likely be the best choice? State your opinion.

    2. If you expect to print double-sided documents what printer will most likely be the best choice? State your opinion.

    3. If you expect to print black and white documents, manuals or business cards and brochures in large quantities what printer will most likely be the best choice? State your opinion.

    4. If you expect to print color documents, manuals or business cards and brochures in large quantities what printer will most likely be the best choice? State your opinion.


Section 5

Secondary Storage Devices
Unit 1

Hard Disks
Nearly every desktop computer and server in use today contains one or more hard-disk drives. Every mainframe and supercomputer is normally connected to hundreds of them. These billions of hard disks do one thing well - they store changing digital information in a relatively permanent form. They give computers the ability to remember things when the power goes out.

Hard disks were invented in the 1950s. They started as large disks up to 20 inches in diameter holding just a few megabytes. They were originally called "fixed disks" or "Winchesters" (a code name used for a popular IBM product). They later became known as "hard disks" to distinguish them from "floppy disks." Hard disks have a hard platter that holds the magnetic medium, as opposed to the flexible plastic film found in tapes and floppies.


There are two ways to measure the performance of a hard disk:

  • Data rate - The data rate is the number of bytes per second that the drive can deliver to the CPU. Rates between 5 and 40 megabytes per second are common.

  • Seek time - The seek time is the amount of time between when the CPU requests a file and when the first byte of the file is sent to the CPU. Times between 10 and 20 milliseconds are common.

The other important parameter is the capacity of the drive, which is the number of bytes it can hold.

Data is stored onto the disk in the form of files. A file is simply a named collection of bytes. No matter what it contains, however, a file is simply a string of bytes. When a program running on the computer requests a file, the hard disk retrieves its bytes and sends them to the CPU one at a time.

Data is stored on the surface of a platter in tracks. Tracks are concentric circles, and sectors are pie-shaped wedges on a track.

A sector contains a fixed number of bytes -- for example, 256 or 512. Either at the drive or the operating system level, sectors are often grouped together into clusters.

The process of low-level formatting a drive establishes the tracks and sectors on the platter. The starting and ending points of each sector are written onto the platter. This process prepares the drive to hold blocks of bytes. High-level formatting then writes the file-storage structures, like the file-allocation table, into the sectors. This process prepares the drive to hold files.

The read/write heads do not touch the platters in the drive. When the platters spin up, they rotate at anywhere between 3,600 rpm and 7,200 rpm.

To the head, the platter seems to be moving at about 150 mph, and a very thin cushion of air forms between the head and the platter so that the head "flies" over the platter. If even the smallest bit of dust makes its way onto the platter, the flight is disrupted and the head "crashes" into the platter, scratching it. The crash, of course, sprays a lot more dust and debris onto the platter and then it's all over.

The other thing that can cause a squealing sound is the bearings in the drive motor. That is another common way for a drive to fail.

Hard disks are amazingly reliable these days, with "Mean Time Between Failures" (MTBF) of 500,000 to 1,000,000 hours. That means that, on average, a drive fails after the specified number of hours, with half of the drives lasting more than that and half lasting less. 500,000 hours is about 57 years. Clearly, not all drives last 57 years, so frequent backups are important.

Hard disks are electromechanical devices and their working life is finite. Media faults, mechanical wear and electronic failures can all cause problems that render drive contents inaccessible. This is unacceptable for any organization, so tactics are often implemented to protect against failure. One of the most common data protection tactics is arranging groups of disks into arrays. This is known as a RAID.



RAID implementations typically offer two benefits; data redundancy and enhanced performance. Redundancy is achieved by copying data to two or more disks -- when a fault occurs on one hard disk, duplicate data on another can be used instead. In many cases, file contents are also spanned (or striped) across multiple hard disks. This improves performance because the various parts of a file can be accessed on multiple disks simultaneously -- rather than waiting for a complete file to be accessed from a single disk. RAID can be implemented in a variety of schemes, each with its own designation: RAID-0 -- RAID-6.

It is also possible to mix RAID levels in order to obtain greater benefits. Combinations are typically denoted with two digits. For example, RAID-50 is a combination of RAID-5 and RAID-0, sometimes noted as RAID-5+0. As another example, RAID-10 is actually RAID-1 and RAID-0 implemented together, RAID-1+0.

The word "disk defrag" is typically used to refer to the Microsoft Windows utility called Disk Defragmenter. It is designed to solve a problem that occurs because of the way hard disks store data.

You know three key facts about hard disks:



  • Hard disks store data in chunks called sectors. Each sector holds a fixed amount of data, like 512 bytes.

  • The hard disk has a small arm that can move from ring to ring on the surface of the disk. To reach a particular sector, the hard disk moves the arm to the right ring and waits for the sector to spin into position.

  • Hard disks are slow in computer terms. Compared to the speed of the processor and its memory, the time it takes for the arm to move and for a sector to spin into place is an eon.

Because of fact #3, you want to minimize arm movement as much as possible, and you want data stored in sequential segments on the disk.

So let's imagine that you install a new application onto an empty hard disk. Because the disk is empty, the computer can store the files of the application into sequential sectors on sequential rings. This is an efficient way to place data on a hard disk.

As you use a disk, however, this efficient technique becomes harder for a disk. What happens is that the disk fills up. Then you erase files to reclaim space. These files that you delete are scattered all over the surface of the disk. When you load a new application or a large file onto the disk, it ends up being stored in hundreds or thousands of these scattered pockets of space. Now when the computer tries to load the scattered pieces, the disk's arm has to move all over the surface and it takes forever.

The idea behind the disk defragmenter is to move all the files around so that every file is stored on sequential sectors on sequential rings of the disk. In addition, a good defragmenter may also try to optimize things even more, for example by placing all applications "close" to the operating system on the disk to minimize movement when an application loads. When done well on older disks, defragmenting can significantly increase the speed of file loading. On a new disk that has never filled up or had any significant number of file deletions, it will have almost no effect because everything is stored sequentially already.

As you might imagine, the process of individually picking up and moving thousands of files on a relatively slow hard disk is not a quick process -- it normally takes hours.

Starting with Windows 98, the defragmenter places the data on the hard drive in the same sequence Windows uses it. The Windows defragmenter also knows what programs you run the most often, and places those on the disk so the computer can access it the fastest possible time.


Vocabulary
data rate скорость передачи данных

seek time время поиска

capacity вместимость, ёмкость, объём

cluster кластер

low-level formatting низкоуровневое форматирование

high-level formatting высокоуровневое форматировани




  1. Put 7-10 questions to the text.




  1. Find in the text the equivalents to the following words and phrases:

битовая строка

файловое запоминающее устройство

таблица размещения файлов

диск выходить из строя

резервная копия

дефект носителей информации

механический износ

отказ аппаратных средств




  1. Define the following terms: date rate, seek time, low-level formatting, high-level formatting, RAID, Disk Defragmenter.

  2. Fill in the gaps with following terms: defragmenter, defragmentation, defragmenting.

  1. The Microsoft Windows utility called Disk … .

  2. The idea behind the disk … is to move all the files around so that every file is stored on sequential sectors on sequential rings of the disk.

  3. … can significantly increase the speed of file loading.

  4. Starting with Windows 98, the … places the data on the hard drive in the same sequence Windows uses it.




  1. Make up a plan and retell the text.




  1. Translate the following texts:

  1. Жесткий диск для ноутбука (HDD) - это устройство для долгого хранения информации. Он представляет собой одну или несколько стеклянных или алюминиевых пластин, на которые нанесён магнитный слой, двигатель, который вращает пластины и блок магнитных головок. Всё это герметично упаковано в металлический корпус. В отличие от оперативной памяти, которая теряет всю сохраненную в ней информацию при выключении ноутбука, жёсткий диск хранит информацию постоянно. К тому же, жёсткие диски имеют гораздо больший объем, нежели оперативная память. В современных ноутбуках используются жесткие диски форматом 2,5 дюйма, с частотой вращения шпинделя от 4200 rpm (оборотов в минуту) на ноутбуках с процессорами Pentium I - II - III, до 5400 и 7200 rpm на ноутбуках последнего поколения. Объем памяти жесткого диска измеряется в гигабайтах. Для ноутбуков продаются жёсткие диски различных объемов: от 10 Gb до 100 Gb. Компания Seagate представила жёсткий диск, который имеет на сегодняшний момент самую большую ёмкость - 120 Gb. Скорость вращения шпинделя составляет 5400 rpm. Фирма заявила, что этот 120-ти гигабайтный винчестер потребляет столько же энергии, как и обычный диск со скоростью вращения шпинделя 4500 rpm. К тому же, этот жёсткий диск практически бесшумен в работе, благодаря специальным моторам Seagate SoftSonic.




  1. Твердотельный жесткий диск (Solid State Disk – SSD) разрабатывался с целью заменить жесткий диск - весьма хрупкую деталь в переносных компьютерах. Для производства SSD используют обычные модули флэш-памяти. Таким образом, SSD состоит из массива флэш-микросхем и контроллера. К преимуществам использования SSD вместо обычных HDD относятся: улучшенные показатели скорости чтения/записи и практически нулевое время для поиска нужной информации. Также к преимуществам SSD относится малый вес и на порядок меньшее энергопотребление, что особо важно при использовании в мобильных устройствах. Кроме того, эксперты говорят о большей надежности SSD. Хотя этот посыл является спорным. Единственное, что можно констатировать совершенно точно – SSD-диски выигрывают у HDD в надежности из-за отсутствия движущихся частей. У SSD существуют и недостатки. В первую очередь – это цена. К примеру, диск на 64 Гб стоит в данный момент около $700. Вторая проблема состоит в небольшом объеме хранимой информации. С развитием мультимедиа, рынок требует все более вместительных устройств хранения данных. Сейчас емкость обычных IDE-дисков уже достигла 1 Тб (1024 Мб). Такие объемы пока немыслимы для SSD. Поэтому основная сфера применения дисков SSD – это бизнес-устройства, где важна производительность и надежность, а не объем, позволяющий хранить музыку и фильмы.
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