Учебно-методическое пособие infotech hardware москва 2009




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Монополизация рынка

К настоящему времени производителей как жестких дисков, так и ключевых компонентов для них (магнитных пластин, головок и двигателей) можно в буквальном смысле пересчитать по пальцам. При этом в последнее время явно прослеживается тенденция к дальнейшему сокращению их числа.

В конце 2002 года Hitachi приобрела подразделение IBM по разработке и выпуску жестких дисков; в результате слияния появилась новая компания Hitachi Global Storage Technologies (Hitachi GST). Однако помимо этого широко известного события произошли получившие значительно меньший общественный резонанс слияния и поглощения. Так, в июле минувшего года Western Digital поглотила компанию Read-Rite, специализирующуюся на изготовлении магнитных головок для жестких дисков. Спустя месяц стало известно о том, что Nidec, которая специализировалась на производстве двигателей для жестких дисков, приобрела работавшую в этом же сегменте компанию Sankyo Seiki Manufacturing.

Таким образом, производственные мощности по выпуску жестких дисков и наиболее важных компонентов для их создания сегодня сосредоточены всего в нескольких крупных компаниях. Очевидно, что сложившееся положение вряд ли претерпит существенные изменения в ближайшем будущем, поскольку появление новых игроков на данном рынке крайне маловероятно: для поддержания конкурентоспособности продукции новому производителю понадобятся поистине гигантские инвестиции в развитие технологической базы и в разработку новых решений.



Extended Activities

  1. Compare HDDs and SSDs. Will SSDs dominate the market? State your opinion.

Unit 2

Optical Disсs
An optical disc is an electronic data storage medium that can be written to and read using a low-powered laser beam. Originally developed in the late 1960s, the first optical disc, created by James T. Russell, stored data as micron-wide dots of light and dark. However, the technology didn't appear in the marketplace until Philips and Sony came out with the compact disc (CD) in 1982. Since then, there has been a constant succession of optical disc formats, first in CD formats, followed by a number of DVD formats.

Optical disc offers a number of advantages over magnetic storage media. An optical disc holds much more data. The greater control and focus possible with laser beams (in comparison to tiny magnetic heads) means that more data can be written into a smaller space. Storage capacity increases with each new generation of optical media. Optical discs are inexpensive to manufacture and data stored on them is relatively impervious to most environmental threats, such as power surges, or magnetic disturbances.



First-generation optical discs

A Compact Disc or CD is an optical disc used to store digital data, originally developed for storing digital audio. The CD remains the standard physical medium for commercial audio recordings as of 2007. Compact Disc technology was later adapted for use as a data storage device, known as a CD-ROM, and to include record-once and re-writable media (CD-R and CD-RW). CD-ROMs and CD-Rs remain widely used technologies in the personal-computer industry.

Second-generation optical discs

DVD is an optical disc technology with a 4.7 gigabyte storage capacity on a single-sided, one-layered disk, which is enough for a 133-minute movie. DVDs can be single- or double-sided, and can have two layers on each side; a double-sided, two-layered DVD will hold up to 17 gigabytes of video, audio, or other information. This compares to 650 megabytes of storage for a CD-ROM disk.

DVD uses the MPEG-2 file and compression standard.

The MPEG standards are an evolving set of standards for video and audio compression developed by the Moving Picture Experts Group (MPEG).

DVD-Video is a standard for storing video content on DVD media.

DVD-Audio is a CD-replacement format. DVD-Audio is a format for delivering high-fidelity audio content on a DVD. Compared with the CD format, the much higher capacity DVD format enables far higher audio quality. Despite DVD-Audio’s superior technical specifications, there is a debate as to whether or not the resulting audio enhancements are distinguishable to typical human ears.

Third-generation optical discs

Major third-generation optical discs are designed for holding high-definition video, enabled by the use of short-wavelength visible light lasers (blue-violet for BluRay and HD-DVD, the most common formats so far).

Blu-ray is a new optical disc standard based on the use of a blue laser rather than the red laser of DVD players. The standard was developed collaboratively by Hitachi, LG, Matsushita (Panasonic), Pioneer, Philips, Samsung, Sharp, Sony, and Thomson. Toshiba and NEC are among the companies promoting a competitive optical format, HD-DVD.

The blue laser has a 405 nanometer (nm) wavelength that can focus more tightly than the red lasers used for writable DVD. As a consequence, a Blu-ray disc can store much more data in the same 12 centimeter space. Like the rewritable DVD formats, Blu-ray uses phase change technology to enable repeated writing to the disc.

Blu-ray's storage capacity is enough to store a continuous backup copy of most people's hard drives on a single disc. The first products have a 27 gigabyte (GB) single-sided capacity, 50 GB on dual-layer discs. Data streams at 36 megabytes per second. Single-sided Blu-ray discs can store up to 13 hours of standard video data, compared to single-sided DVD's 133 minutes.

Blu-ray disc players (BDPs) are available from a number of manufacturers, including Panasonic, Pioneer, Samsung and Sony. Sony's Playstation 3 also has a Blu-ray drive installed.



Will Blu-ray replace DVDs? Yes, that's the expectation. The Blu-ray format has received broad support from the major movie studios as a successor to today's DVD format. In fact, seven of the eight major movie studios (Disney, Fox, Warner, Paramount, Sony, Lionsgate and MGM) are supporting the Blu-ray format. Many studios have also announced that they will begin releasing new feature films on Blu-ray Disc day-and-date with DVD.

HD-DVD (high-density DVD) is a high capacity optical storage medium. A single-layer HD-DVD provides up to 15 gigabytes (GB) of storage capacity and the double-layer disc offers up to 30 GB. A standard single-sided, single-layer DVD offers 4.7 GB storage capacity.

A double-layer HD-DVD can contain up to 48 hours of standard-definition television programming. The data transfer rate of an HD-DVD drive is approximately 36 megabits per second (Mbps) -- more than sufficient to accommodate digital TV signals which are transmitted at 24 Mbps.

HD-DVD and Blu-ray are the two formats most often predicted to replace conventional DVD. A higher-capacity holographic storage medium called HVD (holographic versatile disc) is expected to reach the consumer market in 2008.

HD DVD/ Blu ray comparison

Blu-ray has a higher disc capacity per layer (25 GB vs 15 GB). However the majority (over 80%) of Blu-ray titles are in 25 GB single layer format while almost all (over 90%) HD DVD movies are in 30 GB dual layer format.

In terms of audio/video compression, HD DVD and Blu-ray are similar on the surface: both support MPEG-2, VC-1, and H.264 for video compression. Virtualy every HD DVD released uses an advanced codec (VC-1 or H.264) for video compression, reducing the required space for equivalent quality video. In terms of audio, there are many differences. With HD DVD support for the new Dolby Digital Plus audio codec is mandatory for HD DVD players, but optional for Blu-ray players. Furthermore HD DVD requires players must be able to decode the new lossless audio codec Dolby True HD, but this is optional for Blu-ray players.


The name Blu-ray is derived from the underlying technology, which utilizes a blue-violet laser to read and write data. The name is a combination of "Blue" (blue-violet laser) and "Ray" (optical ray). According to the Blu-ray Disc Association the spelling of "Blu-ray" is not a mistake, the character "e" was intentionally left out so the term could be registered as a trademark.



Vocabulary
medium носитель (информации)

low-powered маломощный



laser beam лазерный луч

micron микрон; одна миллионная часть метра

impervious невосприимчивый

environmental threat экологическая опасность

power surge скачок напряжения

magnetic disturbance магнитное возмущение

high fidelity 1) высокое качество аудио/видеоаппаратуры

2) стандарт Hi-Fi

wavelength длина волны

enhancement модернизация; совершенствование; расширение

promote 1) способствовать; содействовать; поддерживать

2) активизировать; стимулировать

single-sided (SS) односторонний

single-layer однослойный



    1. Put 7-10 questions to the text.

    2. Find in the text the equivalents to the following words and phrases.

маломощный лазерный луч

относительно невосприммчвый

воздействие окружающей среды

скачок напряжения

магнитные помехи

развивающийся комплекс стандартов

различимый на слух




    1. Define the following formats: CD, CD-ROM, CD-R, CD-RW, DVD, DVD-Video, DVD-Audio, HD DVD, Blu-ray.




    1. Describe three generations of optical discs.




    1. Different meanings of the phrasal verb come out are given. Find the synonyms and construct your own sentences:


come out

  • When a new product such as a book or record comes out, it becomes available to the public.

  • If a fact comes out, it becomes known to people.

  • If you come out for something, you declare that you support it. If you come out against something, you declare that you do not support it.




    1. Translate the following text into English:

До недавних пор новое поколение оптических дисков было представлено двумя конкурирующими технологиями — Blu-ray (разработанная компанией Sony в сотрудничестве с несколькими другими фирмами) и HD DVD (созданная Toshiba). Но после того как в текущем году Toshiba отказалась от своего детища, стандартом оптических дисков для высококачественного видео стал Blu-ray. Каковы особенности и преимущества этого формата? При том же диаметре, что и у CD/DVD, носитель Blu-ray позволяет записать 25 Гбайт информации на один слой, а на двухслойных дисках можно хранить до 50 Гбайт. Но технология не лишена некоторых недостатков. Дело в том, что для создания Blu-ray-оборудования (дисков и приводов) приходится полностью модернизировать производственные линии, а значит — инвестировать деньги. Это влечет за собой высокую стоимость как приводов, так и дисков, и сдерживает их популярность. Так, привод для ПК, позволяющий считывать диски Blu-ray, стоит от 5 тыс. руб. и выше, а цена однослойного диска данного формата составляет минимум 500 руб. (двухслойного — около 1300 руб.).


Существует две разновидности дисков Blu-ray. Первая называется BD-R (Blu-ray Disk Recordable) и представляет собой одноразовые записываемые диски. Вторая — BD-RW (Blu-ray Disk ReWritable). По аналогии с предыдущими поколениями оптических носителей это перезаписываемый диск. Для носителей Blu-ray максимальная скорость работы составляет 12x (54 Мбайт/с).


    1. Render the following text.

К 18 февраля весь интернет знал, что война форматов видео высокой четкости закончилась и победил в этой войне формат Blu-ray, разработанный японской корпорацией Sony. Об этом сообщили почти все издания, пишущие о бизнесе либо высоких технологиях.



Молчали только в другой японской компании, Toshiba. Именно там создали HD DVD, главного конкурента Blu-ray. Предполагается, что Toshiba объявит о прекращении поддержки своего формата если не в ближайшие дни, то хотя бы в ближайшие недели.
Спусковым крючком для сообщений о том, что Toshiba сложит оружие, стало заявление сети супермаркетов Wal-Mart. Там решили, что к июню прекратят продавать диски HD DVD и перейдут на эксклюзивную поддержку Blu-ray.
Незадолго до этого о поддержке Blu-ray заявил крупнейший интернет-прокат видеофильмов в США, компания Netflix. Диски с фильмами можно заказать в Netflix по почте, и если раньше пользователь мог выбрать HD DVD или Blu-ray, то теперь остался только формат Sony.
Кроме того, несколько торговых сетей (меньших, чем Wal-Mart, но все равно крупных) объявили о том, что начинают высвобождать полки под Blu-ray за счет дисков с HD DVD.
Наконец, 18 февраля компания Blue Ray Technologies, штампующая диски разных форматов, объявила о закрытии линий по производству HD DVD. По словам основателя BRT, он не собирается ждать, когда Toshiba официально объявит о своем поражении.
Когда историки будут анализировать потерю форматом HD DVD своей доли рынка, они не найдут просчетов ни в технических характеристиках носителей, ни в стоимости приводов. Более того, у HD DVD плееры дешевле. Просто Blu-ray оказался везде - в ноутбуках Sony и приставках Sony PlayStation, в коробках с самыми последними фильмами, на полках магазинов.
Со стороны Toshiba внятных комментариев происходящему не поступает, однако сообщения о конце войны форматы поддерживаются тем фактом, что японская компания не выступает с гневным опровержением. Как удалось узнать BBC News, никакого решения Toshiba пока не приняла.
По данным издания The Inquirer, в Toshiba пока обсуждают три возможности. Во-первых, компания может перестать продавать записывающие устройства и выпускать только плееры, чтобы смягчить процесс умирания формата. Во-вторых, можно попытаться сохранить позиции на европейском рынке, уйдя с рынков США и Японии, где война проиграна. В-третьих, можно полностью уйти из бизнеса, связанного с HD DVD.
Как пишет The Wall Street Journal, решение Toshiba уйти с рынка освободит от обязательств Paramount Pictures и Universal Pictures, которые эксклюзивно поддерживают формат HD DVD. Именно этим компаниям такая свобода особенно необходима после того, как в начале января на сторону Blu-ray переметнулась студия Warner Bros.
Война форматов длится уже более двух лет. За это время производители и инвесторы довольно серьезно вымотались. Кроме того, оба вида плееров вплотную подошли к рубежу, который отделяет дорогую новинку от обычного бытового прибора.
Если противостояние продолжится в будущем, потребителям придется потратиться либо на два плеера, либо на гибридный проигрыватель. Вдобавок из-за поддержки разными студиями разных форматов видеотека может представлять из себя смесь из дисков HD DVD и Blu-ray.
Даже акционеры Toshiba не желают такого развития событий. Возможно, именно поэтому при первых слухах о проигрыше HD DVD акции Toshiba выросли в цене более чем на шесть процентов. Видимо, инвесторы считают, что прекращение войны сделает компанию дороже.


Extended Activities


    1. Which optical format will dominate the market? State your opinion.

Section 6

Supplementary Materials
Text 1

UMPC, MID, Netbook, Nettop
Most of the users are still puzzled when it comes to spotting the differences between the UPMCs and MIDs, as these two concepts seem to share a whole bunch of features. Dan Monahan, Intel's Global Internet Segment Manager of Ultra Mobility explains that there are essential differences between the two families of devices.

UMPC

  • Business-class device for enterprise users

  • Runs a "heavy" OS like Vista

  • Optimized for office-use applications like Excel, Word, etc.

Unlike the consumer-minded MID, a UMPC is designed primarily as a business device or one for power users. Instead of running a stripped-down operating system, a UMPC usually gets powered by a more powerful operating system like Windows Vista. You get an experience that is a lot closer to what you’d get on a regular computer, whether it be a desktop or a laptop.

The form factor of a UMPC is virtually identical to a MID. You usually get a touchscreen display that is between four and seven inches across the diagonal, and depending on the design, you may get a QWERTY keyboard of some kind. Some units will have the display slide upwards to reveal the keyboard, while others opt for an on-screen virtual keyboard. The specs are definitely heavier than most MIDs and you usually get pre-installed productivity tools like Word, Excel, and Outlook.

Because of the heavier specs and more powerful operating system, your typical UMPC will cost a fair bit more than the average MID. You can expect to spend anywhere from $500 to $1000 for most UMPCs, though it’s not out of the ordinary to find some that are even more expensive.


MID

  • Consumer-class lifestyle device

  • Runs a 'lightweight" OS with quick startup like Linux

  • Optimized for things like media playback and web surfing

In essence, a mobile Internet device is designed solely for a single purpose: letting you surf the web on the go. Most of the MIDs on the market are being targeted squarely at the consumer market, so they typically get equipped with lower-end specs and a stripped-down operating system. The idea is that it can be lightweight and efficient, so you’ll usually find MIDs powered by Linux or some other OS.

A mobile Internet device is optimized for web surfing, but they’ll usually throw in some multimedia functionality, letting you watch movies, play music, and possibly take a few pictures too. Storage is usually pretty scarce and most MIDs don’t get displays much bigger than seven inches or so. Depending on the design, the MID may be equipped with a touchscreen, a QWERTY thumbboard, or both.

Because these MIDs are for consumers, manufacturers usually try to keep the price below the $500 threshold, though you’ll find a few units that break this glass ceiling.

The borderline seems to be at least made out of lace, since these two types of devices are usually overlapping. Moreover, should an user need web browsing and multimedia rendering capabilities, they would choose a mid-range mobile phone, a much cheaper solution as compared to a sub-notebook.

At the same time, business and corporate users need more than Word and Excel to get their jobs done. The fact that this sector also needs Internet access and multimedia capabilities goes without saying.


Netbooks
Simply put, a netbook is a much leaner notebook that's optimized for simplicity, affordability and is a very Internet-centric device. That aptly describes what the ASUS Eee PC and OLPC devices are designed for and as such, they can be categorized as first generation netbooks. The next generation netbooks however will be powered by the Intel Atom processor, more specifically the Diamondville. At 1.6GHz core clock (with 512KB L2 cache) and running off a 533MHz FSB, it is quite similar to a Pentium M (Banias) processor in performance as per Intel's findings.

To get a better understanding how netbooks fit into the existing mix of mobility solutions, here's a table to better align yourselves on MID, UMPC, netbooks and notebooks.


MID, UMPC, Netbooks and Notebooks Compared



Categorization / Key Identifiers

MID / UMPC

Netbook

Mainstream Notebook

Requirements

Full Internet Experience in Your Pocket

A Platform at New Affordable Price Points

More than Basic Usage

Key Usage Models

MID: Infotainment
UMPC: Work on-the-go

Internet-centric

Office Productivity & Multitasking

Screen Size

MID: 4.5" - 6"
UMPC: 5" - 7"

Below 10 inches

12-inch or Larger

Operating System

MID: Win XP, Linux
UMPC: Win Vista, Win XP, Linux

Linux, Windows-based

Windows-based

Hardware Platform

MID: Intel Centrino Atom UMPC: Intel Atom processors

Intel Atom / Celeron / Core 2 Duo processors

Intel Core 2 Duo processor

Price-point

US$450 - US$600

US$250 - US$350

US$500 and above

As noted in the key usage model scenario, the traditional notebook is best suited for no compromise usage experience and content creation whilst the netbook is designed more towards a content consumption model off the Internet and your local devices.
While in the current day's usage context, the netbook made popular by ASUS Eee PC and others in the same segment like Kohjinsha still seem limited due to these devices not being either pocketable like a smartphone nor a full fledged powerhouse notebook. However, they are great companions in terms of travel and on-the-go usage for a full keyboard equipped Internet experience. With the next generation netbooks using Intel Atom, they are probably going to be even more appealing in physical attributes and spur even more adopters and thus drive the price down further in future. In mature markets of the developed word, the netbook could lend itself as a secondary or tertiary PC for some members of the family. In the emerging markets of the developing world, the netbook could in fact be the first system adopted by families thanks to the low cost and simplicity of use. Similar to the netbook, a more niche market could be the nettop, which is a desktop equivalent of the netbook.
The critical difference between a netbook and a MID/UMPC is that the former takes on a laptop-like form factor. The display flips up to reveal a standard QWERTY keyboard. Some people prefer this shape over the other two, simply because it is more familiar (but it’s usually bigger).

Like a MID or UMPC, a netbook is meant to a supplementary device. For this reason, you’ll usually get stripped down specs. Most netbooks will come powered either by Windows XP or Linux; if you get into Vista and Tablet territory, it’s hard to categorize those smaller laptops as netbooks anymore.



Text 2

The Future of PCs


EUVL Chipmaking

Silicon microprocessors have been the heart of the computing world for more than 40 years. In that time, microprocessor manufacturers have crammed more and more electronic devices onto microprocessors. In accordance with Moore's Law, the number of electronic devices put on a microprocessor has doubled every 18 months. Moore's Law is named after Intel founder Gordon Moore, who predicted in 1965 that microprocessors would double in complexity every two years. Many have predicted that Moore's Law will soon reach its end because of the physical limitations of silicon microprocessors.

The current process used to pack more and more transistors onto a chip is called deep-ultraviolet lithography (DUVL), which is a photography-like technique that focuses light through lenses to carve circuit patterns on silicon wafers. DUVL will begin to reach its limit around 2005. At that time, chipmakers will have to look to other technologies to cram more transistors onto silicon to create more powerful chips. Many are already looking at extreme-ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) as a way to extend the life of silicon at least until the end of the decade. EUVL uses mirrors instead of lenses to focus the light, which allows light with shorter wavelengths to accurately focus on the silicon wafer. To learn more about EUVL, see How EUV Chipmaking Works.
DNA and Quantum

Beyond EUVL, researchers have been looking at alternatives to the traditional microprocessor design. Two of the more interesting emerging technologies are DNA computers and quantum computers.

DNA computers have the potential to take computing to new levels, picking up where Moore's Law leaves off. There are several advantages to using DNA instead of silicon:


  • As long as there are cellular organisms, there will be a supply of DNA.

  • The large supply of DNA makes it a cheap resource.

  • Unlike traditional microprocessors, which are made using toxic materials, DNA biochips can be made cleanly.

DNA computers are many times smaller than today's computers.
DNA's key advantage is that it will make computers smaller, while at the same time increasing storage capacity, than any computer that has come before. One pound of DNA has the capacity to store more information than all the electronic computers ever built. The computing power of a teardrop-sized DNA computer, using the DNA logic gates, will be more powerful than the world's most powerful supercomputer. More than 10-trillion DNA molecules can fit into an area no larger than 1 cubic centimeter (.06 inch3). With this small amount of DNA, a computer would be able to hold 10 terabytes (TB) of data and perform 10-trillion calculations at a time. By adding more DNA, more calculations could be performed.

Unlike conventional computers, DNA computers could perform calculations simultaneously. Conventional computers operate linearly, taking on tasks one at a time. It is parallel computing that will allow DNA to solve complex mathematical problems in hours -- problems that might take electrical computers hundreds of years to complete. You can learn more about DNA computing in How DNA Computers Will Work.

Today's computers work by manipulating bits that exist in one of two states: 0 or 1. Quantum computers aren't limited to two states; they encode information as quantum bits, or qubits. A qubit can be a 1 or a 0, or it can exist in a superposition that is simultaneously 1 and 0 or somewhere in between. Qubits represent atoms that are working together to serve as computer memory and a microprocessor. Because a quantum computer can contain these multiple states simultaneously, it has the potential to be millions of times more powerful than today's most powerful supercomputers. A 30-qubit quantum computer would equal the processing power of a c

Conventional computer capable of running at 10 teraops, or trillions of operations per second. Today's fastest supercomputers have achieved speeds of about 2 teraops.



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