Е. В. Панькина Практическая грамматика английского языка

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Федеральное государственное бюджетное образовательное учреждение

высшего профессионального образования

«Алтайская государственная академия образования

имени В.М. Шукшина»

Н.Г. Виноградова

Е.В. Панькина

Практическая грамматика английского языка

Учебное пособие

ББК 81.2 (Англ.)

В 48
Печатается по решению

редакционно-издательского совета

Алтайской государственной академии образования

имени В.М. Шукшина

Рецензент: кандидат педагогических наук, доцент кафедры английского языка ФГБОУ ВПО «АГАО им. В.М. Шукшина» О.М. Липустина (г. Бийск).

Виноградова, Н.Г.

Практическая грамматика английскoгo языка [Текст] : учебное пособие для бакалавров / Н.Г. Виноградова, Е.В. Панькина; Алтайская гос. Академия образования им. В.М. Шукшина. – Бийск: ГОУ ВПО «АГАО», 2015. – 107 c. – 50 экз.

Издание предназначено для студентoв 2 курса oчнoгo отделения и студентов заoчнoгo oтделения факультета инoстранных языкoв. Методическое пособие включает в себя теорию и практические задания по темам курса практической грамматики для самостоятельной работы студентов.

 ФГБОУ ВПО «АГАО», 2015.

 Н.Г. Виноградова, 2015.


Preface 4

The subjunctive mood


The subjunctive mood in simple sentences 6

The subjunctive mood in complex sentences 15

Practical exercises………………………………………………………26
The modal verbs 42

Can,/could 42

May/ Might 45

Must/to be to/ to have to…………………………………48


Ought to/should………………………………………….56


Practical exercises………………………………………………………89

The non-finite forms of the verb..........................................................109

The Infinitive………………………………………….…109

The Gerund………………………………………………117

The Participle………………………………………..…..129

Practical exercises………………………………………………………145


The need to improve on pedagogical grammars must be recognized with regard to theoretical insight and practical needs. This practical course is devoted to the latter ones.

The material of the course conforms to the demands of the state programme standard and contains the following sections: “The Subjunctive Mood”, “The Modal Verbs”, “The Non-Finite Forms of the Verbs”. The textbook consists of three parts and contains practical grammar exercises in the grammar topics mentioned. It is intended for the full-time students of the second course and part-time students of the senior courses of the faculty of foreign languages.

“Practical English Grammar” is intended as a handbook for students of English, learners who are interested in the way in which the grammatical system of the English language can be described, understood and used.



Mood is a grammatical category which indicates the attitude of the speaker towards the action expressed by the verb from the point of view of its reality.

In Modern English we distinguish three moods:

1) The Indicative Mood

2) The Imperative Mood

3) The Subjunctive Mood

The Indicative Mood shows that the action or state expressed by the verb is presented as a fact.

e.g. We went home early in the evening. (Dickens)

The Indicative Mood is also used to express a real condition or a condition the realization of which is considered possible.

e.g. If it rains, I shall stay at home.

If Catherine disobeys us, we shall disinherit her. (Eliot)


The Imperative Mood expresses a command or a request. In Modern English the Imperative Mood has only one form which coincides with the infinitive without the -particle to; it is used in the second person (singular and plural).

e.g. Be quiet and hear what I tell you. (Eliot)

Please put the papers on the table by the bed. (Hemingway)

In forming the negative the auxiliary verb to do is always used, even with the verb to be.

e.g. Hush! Don't make a noise! (Eliot)

Don't be angry... (Hemingway)

The auxiliary verb to do may also be used in affirmative sen­tences to make the request more emphatic.

e.g. But now, do sing again to us. (Eliot)

To make a request or an order more emphatic the subject expressed by the pronoun you is sometimes used. It is character­istic of colloquial speech.

e.g. I'll drive and you sleep awhile. (Hemingway)
A command addressed to the third person singular and plural is usually expressed with the help of the verb to let.

e.g. Let the child go home at once. Пусть ребенок сейчас же идет домой. Let the children go home at once. Пусть дети сейчас же идут домой.


The Subjunctive Mood shows that the action or state expressed by the verb is presented as a non-fact, as something imaginary or desired. The Subjunctive Mood is also used to express an emotional attitude of the speaker to real facts.

In Modern English the Subjunctive Mood has synthetic and analytical forms.

e.g. I wish I were ten years older," I said. (Braine)

«Хотел бы я быть на десять лет старше», — сказал я.

I wish you would speak rationally. (E. Bronte)

Я хотел бы, чтобы вы говорили разумно.
The synthetic forms of the Subjunctive Mood can be traced to the Old English period, when the Subjunctive Mood was chiefly expressed by synthetic forms. In Old English the Subjunc­tive Mood had a special set of inflections, different from those of the Indicative.

In course of time most of the inflections were lost and the difference between the forms of the Subjunctive and those of the Indicative has almost disappeared. However, in Modern English there are a few synthetic forms of the Subjunctive which have survived; they are as follows: the Present Subjunctive of all the verbs and the Past Subjunctive only of the verb to be.

I. The Present Subjunctive. In the Present Subjunctive the verb to be has the form be for all the persons singular and plural, which differs from the corresponding forms of the Indicative Mood (the Present Indefinite). In all other verbs the forms of the Present Subjunctive differ from the corresponding forms of the Indicative Mood only in the third person singular, which in the Present Subjunctive has no ending -s.

The Present Subjunctive denotes an action referring to the present or future. This form is but seldom used in Modern English. It may be found in poetry and in elevated prose, where these forms are archaisms used with a certain stylistic aim. It is also used in scientific language and in the language of official documents, where it is a living form.

e.g. Though all the world be false, still will 1 be true. (Trollope)

Даже если весь мир будет лживым, все же я буду правдива.

The Present Subjunctive also occurs in some set expressions,

e.g. Be it so!

Пусть будет так! Да будет так!

God forbid!

Боже упаси! Сохрани бог!
In American English the Present Subjunctive is used not only in the above mentioned cases but also in colloquial language.

e.g. Yates called the hospital and insisted that one of the doctors come to the phone. (Шут)

Йейтс позвонил в госпиталь и потребовал, чтобы кто-нибудь из врачей подошел к телефону.
П. The Past Subjunctive. In the Past Subjunctive the verb to be has the form were for all the persons singular and plural, which in the singular differs from the corresponding form of the Indicative Mood (the Past indefinite). Occasionally the form was, which coincides with the form of the indicative Mood, can be found in the singular.

e.g. I know I am affectionate. I wouldn't say it, if I wasn't certain that I am. (Dickens).

The Past Subjunctive is widely used in Modern English and occurs not only in literature but also in colloquial language.

The term “Past Subjunctive” is merely traditional as in Modern English it does not necessarily express a past action. In adverbial clauses of condition it denotes an unreal condition referring to the present or future. In other types of subordinate clauses it denotes an action simultaneous with the action expressed in the principal clause; thus it may refer to the present and to the past.

e.g If I were ill I should like to be nursed by you. (Bennett)

Если бы я был болен, я бы хотел, чтобы за мной ухаживали вы.

I want to go everywhere, I wish I were a gipsy. (Galsworthy)

Мне хочется всюду побывать. Я хотела бы быть цыганкой.

The analytical forms of the Subjunctive Mood consist of the mood auxiliaries should, would, may (might) or shall (which is seldom used) and the infinitive of the notional verb.

e.g. Yates wished Bing would stop thanking .him, but Bing went on. (Heym)

Йейтсу хотелось, чтобы Бинг перестал благодарить его, но Бинг все благодарил.

Whoever you may be, Sir, I am deeply grateful to you. (Dickens)

Кто бы вы ни были, сэр, я вам глубоко признателен.

I propose that you shall come along ,with me. (Dickens)

Я предлагаю вам пойти со мной.

Mood auxiliaries have developed from modal verbs, which have lost their modality and serve to form the analytical Subjunctive. Still there are cases when mood auxiliaries retain a shade of moda­lity, for instance the verb might in adverbial clauses of purpose.

e.g. Lizzie stood upon the causeway that her father might see her. (Dickens)

Лиззи стояла па "дамбе, чтобы отец увидел ее (мог увидеть ее).



In simple sentences the synthetic forms of the Subjunctive Mood are more frequent than the analytical forms. In simple sentences the Subjunctive Mood is used:

(1) to express wish (пожелание):

e.g. Long live the Queen! Да здравствует Королева!

Success attend you! Да сопутствует вам успех!

То express wish the analytical subjunctive with the mood auxil­iary may is also used.

e.g. May success attend you! Да сопутствует вам успех!

May you live long and die happy! Желаю вам долго жить и быть счастливым до конца своих дней.

(2) to express an unreal wish:

e.g. If only he were free! (Galsworthy) Если бы только он был свободен!

(3) in oaths and imprecations:

e.g. Manners be hanged! К черту всякие церемонии!

(4) in some expressions:

e.g. Suffice It to say that... Достаточно сказать, что…

Be it so! Да будет так!

God forbid! Боже упаси!

Far be it from me… У меня и в мыслях не было…

The Subjunctive Mood in simple sentences is characteristic of literary style, except in oaths and imprecations, which belong to low colloquial style.


The Subjunctive Mood is used in conditional sentences to express a real or unreal condition. Subordinate clauses of such sentences are usually introduced by the conjunctions if, in case, provided, unless, suppose.

According to the time reference and the type of a condition there are Subjunctive I, Subjunctive II, Subjunctive III, Mixed Subjunctive and Zero Subjunctive. The three main types of the Subjunctive Mood can be traced in the table 1.
Table 1.







If it looks like rain,

If I have more time,

If he is working on

Present Ind./Cont.

we'll stay at home.

I'll come over.

he won't be able to

go with us.

will + Inf.




If I were you,
If I had more time,

If you knew him better,

If it were not raining,
Past Ind./Cont.

I would go there myself.

I would come over.

You wouldn’t think so.

I could go out.


could + Inf.




If you had gone there,
If it hadn't been so hot

last summer,

Past Perfect

you would have seen him.

we could have gone to the South.


could + have + Participle II


Subjunctive I.

Subjunctive I is used to express real condition. The subordinate clause саn refer to the present or the future. We usually find if + Present Indefinite in the subordinate clause and will + bare infinitive in the principal clause.

e.g. If it rains, we will stay at home.

The Conditional clause can come before or after the main clause. We use a comma at the end of the Conditional clause when it comes first:

e.g. If you don't try harder, you will fail

You will fail if you don't try harder.

Other structures are possible depending on what yon want to say:

Subordinate clause Principal clause

If + Present Simple modal verb

If you behave yourself, you can come.

If + Present Simple to be going to

If you don't work you are going to fail.

If + Present Simple imperative

If you need anything, ask.

If + Present Continuous will + bare infinitive

If + Present Perfect will + bare infinitive

If I have finished, I’ll be able to come.

If + Present Perfect modal verb

If you have finished, you can go out.

Imperative and / or + will

Eat less and you’ll get slim.
Subjunctive II.

We use Subjunctive II to describe unlikely situations in the present or future:

Subordinate clause Principal clause

If+ Past Simple would

If I had enough money, I would retire.
Instead of would we can use other modal verbs.

e.g. If I lost my job, I might go abroad for a while.

Compare Subjunctive I and Subjunctive II:

e.g. If I lose my job, I'll find life very difficult (there is possibility – Subjunctive I).

If I lost my job, I would find life very difficult (there is no evidence – Subjunctive II).
Unreal conditions may be also expressed in the following ways:

a) But for + noun / pronoun

e.g.But for the rain, we would go down to the country.

Если бы не дождь, мы бы поехали за город.

b) If it were not for + noun / pronoun

had not been for

e.g. If it were not for your help, I wouldn’t be able to finish my work in time.

Если бы не ваша помощь…

If it hadn't been for me, they would have never found the place.

Если бы не я…

Zero Subjunctive

We use Zero Subjunctive to show that one action, result, etc. always follows another. We often use when for if.

Subordinate clause Principal clause

Present Simple Present Simple

If / When water freezes, it turns to ice.

When I travel by boat, I am always sick.

(just) in сазе

This means “because it is possible that…” and usually comes after the principal clause:

e.g. Paul will bring you a sweater in case it gets cold.
provided (that); as long as

These phrases suggest that there is one vital condition:

e.g. Provided you rest, you will make a full recovery.

We can use unless to replace if… not in conditional sentences . After unless, we use a Present tense to talk about the future:

e.g. Unless you leave now, you will be late.

You will be late unless you go now.

Subjunctive III

We use the Subjunctive III to talk about аn event or situation that did not happen in the past:

Subordinate clause Principal clause

If+ Past Perfect would + Perfect

If Bruce had asked me, I would have said “yes”.
e.g. If I had not become a teacher, I would have liked to be an actor.

Notice how we can make either clause negative, with changes m the meaning:

If I had taken an umbrella, I wouldn't have got wet. (= but I did get wet)

If I hadn't taken an umbrella, 1 would have got wet. (= but I didn't get wet)

Both clauses can be negative:

They wouldn't have missed their plane if they hadn't woken up late. (- but they did wake up late, and they did miss their plane)
Instead of would, we can use could or might modal verbs in the main clause:

If you would asked, I could have told you the answer.

I might have gone to the party If I had known about it.
Mixed Subjunctive

Sometimes we make sentences which mix Subjunctive II and Subjunctive III, especially when a past event has an effect in the present:

e.g. If you hadn't invited me, I wouldn't have gone to the party. (= I did go to the party – Subordinate III)

If you hadn't invited me, I wouldn't be here now. (= I'm at the party now – Subjunctive II and Subjunctive III)
The Subjunctive Mood in subject clauses

The Subjunctive mood is used in subject clauses after a principal clause of the type It is necessary, It is important, etc. The analytical subjunctive with the mood auxiliary should is used for all persons.

It is (was) necessary

It is (was) important

It is (was) right

It is (was) requested that he should come.

It is (was) recommended

It is (was) obligatory

It is (was) better (best)

It is (was) of vital importance

e.g. It was necessary that the child's history should be known to none. (Trollope)

Надо было, чтобы историю этого ребенка никто не узнал.

It was desirable that she... should marry this earnest, well-to-do and respectable man. (Hardy)

Было желательно, чтобы она... вышла замуж за этого серьез­ного, состоятельного и солидного человека.
The Subjunctive Mood in object clauses

The Subjunctive Mood is used in object clauses:

(a) When the predicate of the principal clause is expressed by the verb to wish. If the action expressed in the object clause is simultaneous with that of the principal clause the Past Subjunctive of the verb to be is used; with other verbs the same meaning is expressed by the Past Indefinite of the Indicative Mood.

e.g. I wish I were a girl again. (E. Bronte)

Я хотела бы быть снова девочкой.

I wish she felt as I do. (E. Bronte)

Я бы хотела, чтобы она чувствовала то же, что и я.

If the action expressed in the object clause is prior to that of the principal clause the Past Perfect of the Indicative Mood is used.

e.g. Auntie, I wish I had not done it. (Twain)

Тетя, мне очень жаль, что я это сделал.

The moment Aileen had said this she wished she had not.


Как только Эйлин это сказала, она пожалела об этом.

The above examples show that such sentences are often trans­lated by mentis of как жаль, мне жаль.

The analytical subjunctive with the mood auxiliary would (for all persons) is also used in object clauses after the verb to wish. This form is used only in sentences referring to the present or fu­ture; it is possible only if the subject of the principal clause is not the same as the subject of the object clause. It is chiefly used in sentences expressing request or annoyance.

e.g. I wish you would stay with me for a while. (Voynich)

Я бы хотел, чтобы вы побыли немного со мной.

With the verb to be this form is hardly ever used.
(b) The Subjunctive Mood is used in object clauses introduced by the conjunction lest if in the principal clause the predicate is expressed by a verb denoting fear. The mood auxiliary should is used for all persons.

e.g. She fears (feared) lest she should be blamed.

Она боится (боялась), как бы ее не осудили.

Не trembled lest his secret should be discovered.

Он дрожал при мысли, что его тайна будет раскрыта.

After verbs denoting fear object clauses are often introduced by the conjunction that, in which case the Indicative Mood is used, often with the modal verb may (might).

e.g. She fears (feared) that she will (would) be blamed.

She fears (feared) that she may (might) be blamed.

(c) The Subjunctive Mood is used in object clauses when we find verbs and word-groups denoting order, suggestion, advice, de­sire, etc. in the principal clause. The analytical subjunctive with the mood auxiliary should (for all persons) is used.
He orders (ordered)

He suggests (suggested)

He proposes (proposed)

He demands (demanded) that everything should be ready by 5.

He desires (desired)

He insists (insisted)

He is anxious (was anxious)

He will see (he saw) to it

e.g. Mrs. Linton insisted that Isabella should go to bed. (E. Bronte) Миссис Линтон настаивала на том, чтобы Изабелла легла спать.

She (Agnes) proposed to my aunt that we should go upstairs and see my room. (Dickens)

Она предложила моей тетушке, чтобы мы пошли наверх и по­смотрели мою комнату.

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