И. Н. Мороз english for it students

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Keyboard Symbols

The following chart displays the character symbols, name and Latin-1 number on a standard keyboard in their approximate position on the keyboard. Most characters from any Roman based language can be created on any computer using the American Standard Code for Information Interchange or ASCII. Most computers and software also recognized American National Standards Institute's (ANSI) formatting standards as well. View the entire ISO Latin -1 Character Set.


Exclamation Point








Open or Left Parenthesis

Close or Right Parenthesis

Underscore or
Horizontal Bar













Dash or Hyphen













Open or Left Curly Brace

Close or Right Curly Brace


Open or Left Square Bracket

Close or Right Square Bracket



Or or Vertical Bar

Semi Colon

Apostrophe or Single Quote

Reverse Solidus or Backslash











Less Than

Greater Than

Question Mark












Dot, Period or Full Stop

Solidus or Forward Slash

Grassroots Updated February 9, 2006
b) Before reading the text try to answer the question:
Do you know what QWERTY stands for?
What is QWERTY?
The first modern typewriter was developed by Christopher Sholes and two of his friends, Carlos Glidden and Sam Soule. They worked on a newspaper in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, in the 1860s.

Sholes put each letter on the end of a metal bar. A key was pushed down and the end of the bar hit the paper. The typewriter keys were put in alphabetical order, but the alphabetical order caused a problem. Fast typing made some of the letter bars get caught on one another. The bars were too close together.

Sholes solved the problem. He found out the most-used letters in English. Then he put these letters far apart on the typewriter keyboard. The letter bars did not hit each other easily. The first six letters on the top of the keyboard are QWERTY!
c) Complete the sentences and word combinations using the text:
1. The first ­­_____ typewriter

2. Sholes put _____ letter

3. were put in _____ order

4. were too close _____

5. he put _____ letters far apart

6. The first ____ letters on the top

7. the alphabetical order _____ a problem

8. the end of the bar _____ the paper

9. He found out the _____ letters in English

10. A key was pushed _____

d) Choose the correct variant to complete the sentences:
1. Sholes worked for____

a) the government

b) a typewriter company

c) a newspaper

2. Letters were put on the end of metal ____

a) bars

b) keys

c) alphabets

3. ____ caused the bars to get caught on one another.

a) The metal

b) Fast typing

c) The letters

4. Sholes needed to know ____ to solve the problem.


b) the most-used letters

Samuel Soule

5. Then he put these letters far ____ on the typewriter keyboard.

a) behind

b) ahead

c) apart

5 Writing

With the help of this table and the Listening, write a brief description of a keyboard. The first paragraph is done for you:



Main keys

Main function

Main keyboard


each letter

digits 0-9

punctuation common symbols

input all kinds of data

Function keys



not fixed

can program them

Editing keys


cursor keys

insert, delete

control cursor

Numeric keypad

far right

digits 0-9



input numerical data

Most keyboards have four sections. The main keyboard has keys for each letter and the digits 0 to 9. It also has keys for punctuation and other common symbols. It is used for inputting all kinds of data.

Unit B Creating, Saving and Storing Files
1 Vocabulary

to restore
to show
to differ


to highlight


to flash on/off
to undo



word processing

word processor
to exist


to describe




a) chose the correct translation:
1) exact

a) цифровой

b) точный

c) другой

d) выделенный

2) to describe

a) существовать

b) восстанавливать

c) описывать

d) выделять

3) digital

a) цифровой

b) точный

c) другой

d) выделенный

4) to exist

a) существовать

b) восстанавливать

c) описывать

d) выделять

5) different

a) цифровой

b) точный

c) другой

d) выделенный

6) easy

a) цифровой

b) точный

c) другой

d) легкий

7) to highlight

a) существовать

b) восстанавливать

c) описывать

d) выделять

8) advantage

a) описание

b) преимущество

c) недостаток

d) существование

9) description

a) описание

b) преимущество

c) недостаток

d) существование

10) existence

a) описание

b) преимущество

c) недостаток

d) существование

b) Match the words with their meanings:

1) to restore

2) default

3) exactly

4) word processor

5) row

6) digit

7) to flash

8) disadvantage

9) to exist

10) to show

a) текстовый редактор

b) мигать

c) ряд

d) восстановить

e) существовать

f) показывать

g) недостаток

h) по умолчанию

i) цифра

j) точно

c) Match the icons (a-i) with the words (1-9) below:
1 pointer 2 cursor 3 C: drive icon 4 folder 5 close 6 drop-down menu

7 minimize 8 maximize 9 restore

d) Complete the sentences with the words from the previous exercise:
1) Double-click the _____ to view a list of folders and files.

2) You will find the Undo command in the Edit _____ menu.

3) The _____ shows you where to type on the screen.

4) The mouse controls both the _____ and the cursor.

5) If you click _____, the window will cover all of the computer screen.

6) Clicking _____ changes the size and location of the window.

2 Reading
a) Read the text quickly and answer the question after it:
1. To make a new folder in the Windows OS, go to the desktop, find the My Computer icon with the pointer and double-click it using the left mouse button. The My Computer window appears, showing the different drives. Maximize the screen if necessary.

2. Double-click the C: drive icon. The C: drive window appears showing the folders in your C: drive, either in a row or in a list.

3. Move the pointer to the menu bar. Click on File and a drop-down menu appears. You can only click the words New or Close.

4. Move the pointer to the word New. Another menu appears with Folder at the top of the list.

5. Click on Folder. This creates a new folder that appears at the end of the list of folders on the C: drive. The words New Folder are highlighted. The cursor also flashes on and off to show you where to type.

6. Click on New Folder and type the name you want in the box. This can be up to 250 characters long, but you cannot use the characters ‘/ \ : * ? │’ in your folder name.

7. Click anywhere on the window to see your new folder name. If you do not click on the window, you will save your new folder as New Folder, not with the name you want.

8. Close the window.

9. Your new folder is now listed in the C: drive in alphabetical order.
Do you know any other way of creating a folder?
b) Match the diagrams (a-d) with the instruction numbers from Exercise a):

c) Before reading the text below, try to answer the questions:
How is it possible to lose files on a computer?

Have you ever lost your information? Why?

d) Read the text quickly and match the headings (a-e) with the paragraphs (1-5):
a Saving existing files b Naming files c Saving new files d Defaults
1. Programs that let you create files or save data have a Save command, usually in the File menu. When you save a new file, the Save As dialog box appears (see below). You can let the computer decide the location, the file name and the format, or you can choose these settings yourself. There are many different file formats and they all have advantages and disadvantages. You can save a word-processing document as a web page, for example, or you can save digital photographs in a JPEG format, a TIFF format or many others.

2. The Save As command is the default command for any new document so the Save As dialog box appears even if you click Save. If you do not give a new document a file name in a word-processing program, the file name will usually default to the first line in the document. The default file name in graphics programs is usually ‘Untitled’.

3. If you work on an existing file and want to save changes, click Save, not Save As. You can use Save As to save an existing file in a different location, for example, in another drive or folder (using Save in) with a new name (using File name) or in a different format (using Save as type).

4. Having different folders helps you organize your files, but naming all the different files in one folder is not always easy. You should give files names that describe exactly what they contain so that you can find them easily.

e) Decide if the sentences are true (T) or false (F):

1 If you do not choose a location, a name, or a format when you save a new file, the computer will do it for you.

2 If you click Save on a new file, the Save As dialog box appears. 3 You can save files in one format only.

4 You can save existing files in more than one place on your computer. 5 The Save command only saves existing documents. 6 Most word-processing documents use 'Untitled' as the default name. 7 The Save As command cannot save existing documents.

8 Thinking of names for your files is easy.








f) Complete the sentences (1-6) with the words in bold and phrases in the text:
1 You can make back-up copies of_______ files on a floppy disk by using Save As.

2 I need a_______ camera because I want to save my pictures on my computer.

3 Graphics programs save files without names as _________by default.

4 Clicking _______will let you go to the A: drive, C: drive or D: drive.

5 Programs have _______ settings for all kinds of functions.

6 Click________ in the Save As dialog box to change the file format.

3 Summing-Up
What steps do you follow to create and save a file?

4 History and generations of Computers
Unit A. Development of Computing

1 Vocabulary



silicon chip

integrated circuit


to decide


to make a decision

to develop developer





graphics interface




a) chose the correct translation:

  1. performance

1) выполнение 2) совместимость 3) развитие 4) наличие

  1. compatible

1) имеющийся 2) совместимый 3) начальный 4) распространенный

  1. to set up

1) помещать 2) развивать 3) устанавливать 4) выполнять

  1. mainframe

1) пиктограмма 2) мышь 3) производительность 4) большая ЭВМ

  1. availability

1) установка 2) совместимость 3) наличие 4) производительность

  1. decision

1) решение 2) развитие 3) цепь 4) набор

  1. set

1) набор 2) установка 3) совместимость 4) наличие

  1. initial

1) совместимый 2) имеющийся 3) начальный

  1. data

1) решение 2) информация 3) совместимость 4) развитие

  1. chip

1) информация 2) микросхема 3) установка 4) развитие
b) Match the words with their meanings:

  1. decide

  2. mouse

  3. compatible

  4. performance

  5. chip

  6. developer

  7. data

  8. mainframe

  9. set

  10. icon

1) мышь

2) пиктограмма

3) микросхема

4) информация

5) эффективность

6) набор

7) решать

8) большая ЭВМ

9) разработчик

10) совместимый

c) Make up meaningful word combinations:

to click on …

… interface

to perform …

to develop …

to set up …

… click

d) Complete the sentences with the words from the box:

click develop processor microchip memory

  1. In 1991 IBM were making PCs with 16Mb of …, expandable to 64Mb, running with a … speed of 33MHz.

  2. The company set up a special team to … the first IBM PC.

  3. It was the … technology that made a PC possible.

  4. To run the program you should … on the corresponding button or icon.

2 Reading
a) Read and translate the word combinations from the text:

put together

whole world

initial research

for ever

command-based operating system

to perform a function

processor speed

microchip technology

to make possible

world-wide scale

to make information available

b) Read and translate the sentences from the text:

  1. Using a mouse, the user clicks on icons and buttons.

  2. The computers have changed the world for ever.

  3. The microchip technology made PC possible.

  4. MS/DOS is the initial operating system for the IBM PC.

  5. Different kinds of applications are run on modern PCs.

c) Match the words with their definitions:

1 mainframe

2 mouse

3 icon

4 operating system

5 software

6 hardware

7 microchip

a) the sort of software that controls a computer system

b) a very small piece of silicon carrying a complex electrical circuit

c) a big computer system used for large-scale operations

d) the physical portion of a computer system

e) a device moved by hand to indicate position on the screen

f) a visual symbol used in a menu instead of natural language

g) data, programs, etc., not forming part of a computer, but used when operating it.

d) Read the text. How would you call it?

In 1952, a major computing company took a decision to get out of the business of making mainframe computers. They believed that there was only a market for four mainframes in the whole world. That company was IBM. The following year they reversed their decision.

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