И. Н. Мороз english for it students

Скачать 1.05 Mb.
страница 6/9
Дата 27.08.2016
Размер 1.05 Mb.
1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9

to investigate


to achieve



to trace

to trace back
to claim

to fulfil

to increase

to decrease

to propose

to compose






to deepen




to exploit

to offer

to approach



to evaluate


to assess






to adapt




to remain

a) chose the correct translation:
1) achievement

a) сочинение

b) достижение

c) расследование

d) среда

2) increase

a) выполнять

b) уменьшать

c) увеличивать

d) оценивать

3) simultaneous

a) ценный

b) отчетливый

c) одновременный

d) глубокий

4) investigation

a) сочинение

b) достижение

c) расследование

d) среда

5) valuable

a) ценный

b) отчетливый

c) одновременный

d) глубокий

6) composition

a) сочинение

b) достижение

c) расследование

d) среда

7) distinct

a) ценный

b) отчетливый

c) одновременный

d) глубокий

8) decrease

a) выполнять

b) уменьшать

c) увеличивать

d) оценивать

9) environment

a) сочинение

b) достижение

c) расследование

d) среда

10) deep

a) ценный

b) отчетливый

c) одновременный

d) глубокий

b) Match the words with their meanings:

1) trace

2) approach

3) evaluation

4) tongue

5) offer

6) enormous

7) remain

8) immediately

9) suite

10) deepen

  1. язык

  2. оценка

  3. оставаться

  4. углублять

  5. след

  6. немедленно

  7. огромный

  8. подход

  9. комплект

  10. предложение

        1. Match the words with their definitions:

1) entire

2) claim

3) exploit

4) assess

5) distinction

6) enormous

7) adapt

8) propose

9) investigate

10) fulfil

  1. decide or fix the amount of (a tax or a fine)

  2. point of difference

  3. offer or put forward for consideration

  4. whole, complete

  5. examine, make a careful study

  6. make suitable for a new use, need, situation

  7. perform or complete a task, a duty

  8. work, use or develop

  9. very great, immense

  10. right to ask for

2 Reading and Discussion

  1. Read and translate the text with the help of MT or CAT:

Machine translation, sometimes referred to by the abbreviation MT, is a sub-field of computational linguistics that investigates the use of computer software to translate text or speech from one natural language to another. At its basic level, MT performs simple substitution of words in one natural language for words in another.

Improved output quality can also be achieved by human intervention: for example, some systems are able to translate more accurately if the user has unambiguously8 identified which words in the text are names. With the assistance of these techniques, MT has proven useful as a tool to assist human translators and, in a very limited number of cases, can even produce output that can be used as is (e.g., weather reports).

History of machine translation

The idea of machine translation may be traced back to the 17th century. In 1629, René Descartes proposed a universal language, with equivalent ideas in different tongues sharing one symbol. In the 1950s, The Georgetown experiment (1954) involved fully-automatic translation of over sixty Russian sentences into English. The experiment was a great success and ushered9 in an era of substantial funding for machine-translation research. The authors claimed that within three to five years, machine translation would be a solved problem.

Real progress was much slower, however, and after the ALPAC report (1966), which found that the ten-year-long research had failed to fulfill expectations, funding was greatly reduced. Beginning in the late 1980s, as computational power increased and became less expensive, more interest was shown in statistical models for machine translation.

The idea of using digital computers for translation of natural languages was proposed as early as 1946 by A. D. Booth and possibly others. The Georgetown experiment was by no means the first such application, and a demonstration was made in 1954 on the APEXC machine at Birkbeck College (University of London) of a rudimentary10 translation of English into French. Several papers on the topic were published at the time, and even articles in popular journals (see for example Wireless World, Sept. 1955, Cleave and Zacharov). A similar application, also pioneered at Birkbeck College at the time, was reading and composing Braille texts by computer.

h) There are some advantages of writing with pen and paper. Do you agree or disagree with them? Add any other ideas you may have:

  • pen and paper – cheaper

  • you can write anywhere (don’t need electricity, etc.)

  • don’t need to learn to type

  • handwritten papers – friendly and more personal.

3 Reading
a) Read the text about word-processing:

Word-Processing Facilities
Writing letters, memos or reports are the ways most people use computers. They manipulate words and text on a screen – primarily to print at some later time and store for safe keeping. Computers alleviate much of the tedium1 associated with typing, proofing, and manipulating words. Because computers can store and recall information so readily, documents need not be retyped from scratch2 just to make corrections or changes. The real strength of word processing lies in this ability to store, retrieve and change information. Typing is still necessary (at least for now) to put the information into the computer initially, but once in, the need to retype only applies to new information.

Word processing is more than just typing, however. Features such as Search and Replace allow users to find a particular phrase or word no matter where it is in a body of text. This becomes more useful as the amount of text grows.

Word processors usually include different ways to view the text. Some include a view that displays the text with editor’s marks that show hidden characters or commands (spaces, returns, paragraph endings, applied styles, etc.). Many word processors include the ability to show exactly how the text will appear on paper when printed. This is called WYSIWYG (What You See Is What You Get, pronounced ‘wizzy-wig’). WYSIWYG shows bold, italics, underline and other type style characteristics on the screen so that the user can clearly see what he or she is typing. Another feature is the correct display of different typefaces and format characteristics (margins, indents3, super- and subscripted characters, etc.). This allows the user to plan the document more accurately and reduces the frustration4 of printing something that doesn’t look right.

Many word processors now have so many features that they approach the capabilities of layout5 applications for desktop publishing. They can import graphics, format multiple columns of text, run text around graphics etc.

Two important features offered by word processors are automatic hyphenation6 and mail merging7. Automatic hyphenation is the splitting of a word between two lines so that the text will fit better on page. The word processor constantly monitors words typed and when it reaches the end of the line, if a word is too long to fit, it checks that word in a hyphenation dictionary. The dictionary contains a list of words with preferred places to split them. If one of these cases fits part of the word at the end of the line, the word processor splits the word, adds a hyphen at the end and places the rest of the word on the next line. This happens extremely fast and gives the text a more polished and professional look.

mail merging applications are largely responsible for explosion of ‘personalized mail’. Form letters with designed spaces for names and addresses are stored as documents with links to lists of names and addresses of potential buyers or clients. By designating what information goes into which blank space, a computer can process a huge amount of correspondence substituting the ‘personal’ information into a form letter. The final document appears to be typed specifically to the person addressed.

Many of word processors can also generate tables of numbers or figures, sophisticated indexes and comprehensive tables of contents.

b) Complete the sentences with the words from the box:
type style, WYSIWYG, format, indent, font menu, justification, mail merging

  1. _____ stands for ‘What You See Is What You Get’. It means that your printout will precisely match what you see on the screen.

  2. _____ refers to the process by which the space between the words in a line is divided evenly to make the text flush with both left and right margins.

  3. You can change font by selecting the font name and point size from the _____.

  4. _____ refers to distinguished visual characteristic of a typeface; ‘italic’ for example is a _____ that may be used with a number of typefaces.

  5. The _____ menu of a word processor allows you to set margins, page numbers, spaces between columns and paragraph justifications.

  6. _____ enables you to combine two files, one containing names and addresses and the other containing a standard letter.

  7. An _____ is the distance between the beginning of a line and the left margin, or the end of the line and the right margin. Indented text is usually narrower than text without it.

c) Match the words with their definitions:

  1. retrieve

  2. typeface

  3. header

  1. footer

  2. sub-scripted character

  3. hyphenation

  1. a text printed in the top margin

  2. recover information from a computer system

  3. letter, number or symbol that appears below the baseline of the row of type; commonly used in maths formulas

  4. a text printed in the bottom margin

  5. division of words into syllables by a short dash or hyphen

  1. styles for a set of characters; sometimes called ‘fonts’

d) Match the words with the types of lettering:

bold, bold italic, italic, lower case, outline, plain text, shadow, strikethrough, underline, upper case

1. _____________ Word-Processing

2. _____________ word-processing

3. _____________ Word-processing

4. _____________ Word-Processing

5. _____________ Word-Processing

6. _____________ Word-Processing

7. _____________ Word-Processing

8. _____________ Word-Processing

9. _____________ Word-Processing

10. ____________ Word-Processing
e) Read the text and describe the major features of the word processor:
Writing Tools
Three major features that word processors offer are spell checkers, online thesauruses and grammar checkers. Read the descriptions of these features.

  1. Spell checkers can be used to compare words in the program’s dictionary to those used in the user’s document. The spell checker points to any words it cannot match, notifies the user, and allows him or her to make any changes; it sometimes even suggests possible correct spellings. Like a conventional thesaurus, this database of words contains definitions and suggestions of words with similar and opposite meanings. A word may be spelled correctly but still be wrong (too instead of two). This is a good first step at proofing a document because it can find many common errors, but will still need to proofread documents to ensure complete accuracy.

  2. Many word processors include an on-line thesaurus with which the users can look up different words to use in similar instances. Their power comes not from knowing every grammatical rule, but from the questioning the writer about certain parts of the text. Some even include information about pronunciation and histories of evolving meaning.

  3. Grammar checkers are applications that attempt to check more than just spelling. They count words in sentences to flag possible run-on sentences. They look for words that show possible conflicts between verbs and subjects and they offer advice about corrections. Grammar checkers are a step beyond spell checkers, but they are still not a substitute for a human editor. However, this does not mean that all the words in the document are spelled correctly. This gives the writer another chance to think about what he or she has written; the computer can alert writers to problems that wouldn’t be obvious to them otherwise.


4 Listening

Listen the lecture on word processing and answer the questions which follow:

1) In terms of correcting mistakes, what is the advantage of a word processor over a conventional typewriter?

2) What is a word-wrap?

3) Explain the function(s) of the cursor.

4) What three main functions of editing are available with word processors?

5) What is the most common use of a spelling checker?

6) About how many words might a spelling checker dictionary contain?

7) By what means is text highlighted using the formatting facility?

8) go through the steps to move text around the screen.

How often and how much do you write by hand?

Are there any situations when you MUST or SHOULD write by hand?

Unit D. Computer Uses (3): Machine Translation

1 Vocabulary

1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9

База данных защищена авторским правом ©infoeto.ru 2022
обратиться к администрации
Как написать курсовую работу | Как написать хороший реферат
    Главная страница