И. Н. Мороз english for it students

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to clip


to recognize


to refer

to be referred


reference book

to convert





free of charge

to charge

to recharge

to launch

to advise


a) chose the correct translation:
1) advice

a) заряд

b) совет

c) запуск

d) обзор

2) charge

a) заряд

b) совет

c) запуск

d) обзор

3) to convert

a) вырезать

b) преобразовать

c) относиться

d) советовать

4) to clip

a) вырезать

b) преобразовать

c) относиться

d) советовать

5) reference book

a) заряд

b) обзор

c) справочник

d) образец

6) primary

a) обзор

b) первичный

c) справочный

d) распознавание

7) pattern

a) заряд

b) обзор

c) справочник

d) образец

8) recognition

a) распознавание

b) заряд

c) совет

d) запуск

9) launch

a) заряд

b) совет

c) запуск

d) обзор

10) survey

a) заряд

b) совет

c) запуск

d) обзор

b) Match the words with their meanings:

  1. to recognize

  2. to convert

  3. to launch

  4. to advise

  5. to refer

  6. to recharge

  7. template

  8. similar

  9. feature

  10. primary

a) ссылаться

b) запустить

c) зарядить

d) подобный

e) первичный

f) преобразовать

g) шаблон

h) черта

i) распознать

j) советовать

с) Match the words with their definitions:

1) clipboard

2) feature

3) template
4) transmission

5) pixel

6) reference
7) conversion
8) rechargeable
9) advisable

10) similar

a) the smallest single point on a visual display screen

b) wise, sensible, recommended

c) a file or memory area where computer data is kept for a short time while the user cuts or copies sth from an open document

d) something important, interesting or typical of a place or thing

e) like, of the same sort

f) a data item that contains information such as an address or index which shows where another data item may be found

g) a change, especially from one system to another, or from one form to another

h) the action of sending sth out from one person, machine or thing to another

i) that is able to be filled with electricity each time the electricity it contains is used

j) a plan of sth that is used as a model for producing other similar examples

2 Reading
a) Before reading the text, match the words with their definitions:

a clipboard

b stylus

c screen

d grid

e voltage

f pixel

g template

l surface on which pictures or data are shown

2 electrical force

3 pattern used as a guide for creating letters

4 individual dot on a computer screen

5 network of lines crossing at right angles

6 pointed implement for drawing or writing

7 portable board with a clip at the top for holding papers

b) Read the text and try to explain the heading:
Delete Keys – Clipboard Technology
FOR THE LAST GENERATION, Silicon Valley and Tokyo have been working to design computers that are ever easier to use. There is one thing, however, that has prevented the machines from becoming their user-friendliest: you still have to input data with a keyboard, and that can require you to do a lot of typing and to memorize a lot of elaborate commands.

Enter the clipboard computer, a technology that has been in development for the last 20 years but took hold in the mass market only this year. Clipboard PCs - which, as their name suggests, are not much bigger than an actual clipboard - replace the keyboard with a liquid crystal display (LCD) screen and an electronic stylus. Users input data by printing individual letters directly on the screen.

There are two technologies at work in a clipboard PC: one allows raw data to get into the computer and the other allows the computer to figure out what that data means. The first technology relies principally on hardware and varies depending on the particular computer. In one system, marketed under the name GRIDPad, the computer's LCD screen is covered by a sheet of glass with a transparent conductive coating. Voltage is sent across the glass in horizontal and vertical lines forming a fine grid; at any point on the grid, the voltage is slightly different. When the stylus - which is essentially a voltmeter – touches the screen, it informs the computer of the voltage at that point. The computer uses this information to determine where the stylus is and causes a liquid crystal pixel to appear at those coordinates. The position of the stylus is monitored several hundred times a second, so as the stylus moves across the glass, whole strings of pixels are activated.

‘What we do is sort of connect the dots,’ says Jeff Hawkins, the creator of GRIDPad. `Users can then write whatever they want on the screen with a kind of electronic ink.’

Making that writing comprehensible to the computer, however, requires the help of some powerful software. When the stylus is being used, the computer is programmed to look for moments when the tip does not touch the screen for a third of a second or more. Every time this happens - and it happens a lot when somebody is printing - the software assumes that one letter or number has been written. The pixel positions of this fresh character are then passed on to the computer’s pattern recognition software, which instantly identifies the letter or number written.

The software does this by first cleaning up the character - smoothing out crooked lines and removing errant dots. The remaining lines and curves are then compared with a series of templates in the computer’s memory that represent hundreds of thousands of different versions of every letter in the English alphabet and all ten numerals. When the computer finds the closest match, it encodes the character in memory and displays it on the screen as if it had been typed. The entire process takes just a fraction of a second. To delete a word, you simply draw a line through it. To move to the next page, you flick the stylus at the bottom of the screen as if you’re flicking the page of a book.

There are a handful of clipboard computers now on the market, including GRIDPad, which is sold in the US; Penvision, manufactured by NCR and sold around the world; and Sony's Palmtop and Canon’s Al Note, both sold only in Japan. IBM and Apple are also pouring millions of dollars into the technology.

In addition to this hardware, a variety of software is also making its way to the market. Depending on the power of the computer and the sophistication of the software, clipboard systems can be programmed to understand the particular quirks of a particular user's printing1; this is an especially useful feature in Japan, where elaborate kanji2 characters make up most of the written language. Improvements in software may soon allow machines sold in the US to understand not only printing but continuous script as well.

Given such flexibility, the designers of clipboard computers are predicting big things – and a big market – for their products. ‘There’s no doubt about it,’ says an optimistic Hawkins. `You’re going to own one of these things in the not-too-distant future’.

1printing - (in this case) writing separated letters or numbers by hand

2kanji - Japanese script which uses Chinese characters

c) Look through the text and decide if the sentences are true (T) or false (F). Change the false sentences to make them true:

1 The Americans and the Japanese are working together to produce user-friendlier computers.

2 The clipboard computer was first sold twenty years ago.

3 On a clipboard, an electronic pen replaces the traditional keyboard.

4 In the GRIDPad system, when the pen touches the screen, it informs the computer and a liquid crystal pixel appears at that point.

5 The software decides that one character or number is complete if the tip of the stylus is not in contact with the screen for more than half a second.

6 The whole process of recognizing letters or numbers and printing them on the screen takes very little time.

7 There are many clipboard computers sold today which are all available everywhere in the world.

8 Clipboard systems can be made to understand any kind of writing.
d) Find synonyms:






6.making even

7.not straight

8.made by mistake

9.move quickly and sharply

10.unique features

e) Complete the dialog using the information from the text:

A How big is a clipboard PC?

B _________________________

A Does it have a keyboard?

B _________________________

A How does the stylus work?

B _________________________

A How does the computer know when one letter or number is complete?

B _____________________________________________________

A And how does the computer recognize different letters?

B _____________________________________________________

A Can you delete a word after you have written it?

B Yes. _________________________________________________

A Are these systems capable of recognizing joined writing?

B _____________________________________________________
f) Read the extract from Dan Gooking’s book ‘Buying a Computer for Dummies’. Give a good translation of the extract, try to keep to the style of the author:
Laptops for every kind of lap
Portable computers are available for people on the go or anyone who wants a smaller computer than the traditional desktop model. For example, if you take your work home with you, it’s just easier to have a laptop you can lug back and forth than to try to share information between home and office computers.

Laptops have the same features as desktop computers, but they’re smaller. Figure 3-4 shows a typical PC laptop, which has everything a desktop computer has, but all shoved into the space of a typical three-ring binder. Because of laptops’ smaller components, they usually run more than twice the cost of a comparable desktop system.

Be mindful of the case design!
Although some computer boxes look sleeker than others — and that’s a purchase decision — you have to make more practical decisions in choosing a case — noise, for example.

Some case designs are quieter than others. Computers do make noise, mostly from their internal fans. Some manufacturers take care with their designs to make their computers quieter.

For example, most Macintoshes make hardly a sound, whereas some mom-’n’-pop custom computers tend to be noisier than a room full of 8-year-olds playing video games.

Another consideration is those translucent cases and colorful computers. You pay a premium for buying those types of cases with your computer. However, many after-market dealers sell fancy computer case upgrades, similar to the aftersale market for car accessories.

On the Macintosh side, the PowerBook G4 is the laptop of choice (see Figure 3-5). It’s essentially a desktop Macintosh all crammed into a tiny space. Also, the iMac type of laptop is a lower-end model named the iBook.

Unlike desktop Macintoshes, the laptop versions are price-competitive with PC laptops.

- Laptop computers are also known as notebooks. (In the olden days, the term notebook implied a lightweight laptop, but all laptops are now light enough to be notebooks.)

- I don’t generally recommend a laptop as your first computer purchase. Even so, in some circumstances, a laptop suits you far better than a desktop can.

- Also see Chapter 14, which covers the issues involved with buying a laptop computer.
The Tablet PC
The newest thing in computers is the Tablet PC, which mostly resembles a laptop computer minus the keyboard, as shown in Figure 3-6. The Tablet PC is basically one large monitor on which you write directly using a special pen, or stylus. The stylus controls the graphical gizmos displayed on the screen, and the Tablet PC’s software translates your chicken scratches into readable text.

Though they’ve been available for some time now, Tablet computers really haven’t taken off. Their relatively high price is an issue, and I believe that the lack of a keyboard is also holding back these unique and fun devices.

- Tablet PCs have an option to allow you to plug in an external keyboard, if you want.

- Some Tablet PCs are merely laptops where the flip-top screen can bend all the way around and the unit can be held like a clipboard.

Palmtop and handheld computers
A palmtop, or handheld, computer isn’t really as much a computer as it is a data-gathering device. Basically, the system is about the size of a pad of paper, with a large screen and a few handy buttons, as shown in Figure 3-7. A stylus is used to write directly on the screen, which serves as both the display and the input device.

The palmtop computer is more ideally a replacement for the old organizer.

It’s good for taking notes, scheduling, doodling, and playing games, plus some versions can play music or even take digital pictures. But, overall, this type of computer works best as an on-the-go extension of a desktop computer system.

- The most popular palmtop device is the Palm handheld computer. This fact leads some folks to refer to this category as “Palm” computers, although many other handheld computer brands, makes, and models are available.

- Unlike other, earlier small computers, the modern handheld system is revolutionary because it doesn’t pretend to be a smaller version of a fullon computer. It serves as a notepad, address book, and scheduler, and it has lots of unique software. The handheld system does specialized tasks and does them well.

- Handheld computers can work with both Macintosh and PC computers, making them an ideal supplement to a desktop system.

(Chapter 3: Computers from A to Z)
3 listening
a) Listen to this interview with Tom Bryant, a writer with a computer magazine. Are these sentences true or false?

1. Palmtops are a type of handheld computers.

2. Palmtops have a mouse and a keyboard as input devices.

3. Handheld computers run Windows XP.

4. Some pen computers come with operating systems that can recognize handwriting.

5. Handhelds are primarily designed to organize and communicate personal information.

6. You cannot transmit data from handheld computers to desktop PCs and peripherals.

7. Business people will make up a large section of the handheld market.

b) Read the extract from the interview and fill in the missing words. The first letter of each missing word is given:
Interviewer: Some portable computers are referred to as laptops and others as (1)p___. Can you explain the difference?

Tom: Sure. Laptops are simply smaller versions of desktop Pcs, but they can run similar applications. However, palmtops are (2)h___ computers and weigh less than 2 pounds; they are used as PC companions or as personal (3)d___ assistants.

Interviewer: And what are the basic features of palmtops?

Tom: Well, these handheld devices run on rechargeable alkaline batteries and have small (4)k___ and high-contrast LCD (5)s___. Sometimes they have buttons for launching applications and a stylus or (6)p___, which is used for interacting with a touch-sensitive screen.

Interviewer: Do they need special operating (7)s___?

Tom: Yes. They usually run Palm OS, from Palm Computing or Pocket PC OS, the system developed by Microsoft for mobile-computing devices. Some pen-based systems can also (8)r___ hand-written characters and convert them into editable text.

Interviewer: Right. What sort of things can you do with handheld computers?

Tom: They are usually designed to store personal (9)i___, for example, a calendar, an address book, a note pad, a calculator and a voice recorder. They can also come with built-in (10)m___ and Internet software, which lets you send and receive e-mail from a payphone, a hotel or even a plane.
Now listen to the recording again and check your answers.
6 Summing- Up
a) Read the extract from Dan Gooking’s book ‘Buying a Computer for Dummies’. Give a good translation of the extract, try to keep to the style of the author:
Just Tell Me Which Type of Computer I Need!”
Sorry — can’t do that. Everyone is different, so everyone needs something a little different in their computers. Although it’s true that you could get by with just about any computer, why settle for something less than what you need? This book shows you how to find a computer especially for you.

Think of it like a car. You may say “I want a new car.” Which type of car? A sedan? A truck? How big of an engine do you want? What about good gas mileage? Do you want to pay extra for power seats or heated outside mirrors? And — most important — what color do you want? Computers are more complex than cars, so you have even more personal decisions to make.

Figure out what you want to do with your computer
Believe it or not, knowing what you want to do with the computer before you buy it is really helpful. Even if your only reason for buying one is that it would match the décor of your high-tech office, that’s a good enough reason. Other folks, though, usually have some inkling in mind about why the Emperor of All Gadgets would be useful to them.

The first step toward buying your own computer is to decide what you want to do with it. As with other handy devices you own — a telephone, a car, a refrigerator, and that lava lamp — you need a reason to have a computer. Well? What do you see yourself doing on a computer?

  • The number-one reason to buy a computer now is “to do the Internet.” With your computer, you can exchange e-mail, browse the Web, view news and sports, entertain yourself, chat, shop, trade stocks, mind your finances, or just plain goof off. Hey! That’s a great reason to own a computer! If that’s you, bravo!

  • Some people know instantly what they want a computer to do. I want a computer to help me write. My son is into film, and he wants a digital video studio. My younger kids want to play games and send e-mail.

  • If you ever work with lists, numbers, 3-x-5 cards, home finances, stocks, bonds, or Swiss bank accounts, or if you trade in plutonium from the former Soviet Union, you need a computer.

  • If you’re buying a computer to complement the one at your office, you probably need something similar at home.

  • If you’re buying a computer for your kids in school, ask their teachers what types of computers best run the software the school uses. Buy something similar for home.

  • A survey was taken a while back to find out why some people do not yet own a computer. The number-one reason? (Can you guess?) No, it wasn’t that computers are too expensive. The number-one reason that people don’t buy computers is that they haven’t yet figured out what to do with one!

  • If you’re really stuck, it helps to picture yourself in the future, working on a computer. What are you doing (besides swearing at it)?

    1. You are going to buy a computer and you have already made your choice. Explain why this particular type of computer would be the best for you.

    1. Make up a dialog between a computer salesperson and a customer choosing a computer.

Unit B. Computer Uses (1)
1 Vocabulary

to prepare




memo (memorandum)
to entertain



barcode reader



to link

to pick up


flight reservation

to advertise

advertisement (ad)


to take medicine

to introduce


to encourage

to convert

to forgive
to expect



to be/get familiar with

to imagine


to require


desktop publishing

a) chose the correct translation:
1) shape


b) Study these details of different types of computer. Find the answers to these questions:
Which type of computer is:

1 the most common?

2 small enough for a pocket?

3 the most common portable?

4 used by many people at the same time?

5 used like mainframes?

6 also called a handheld computer?

7 the most powerful?

8 not suitable for a lot of typing?

Types of computer



Large, powerful, expensive.

Multi-user systems – used by many people at the same time.

Used for processing very large amounts of data.

The most powerful mainframes are called supercomputers.


Used like mainframes.

Not as big, powerful, or expensive as mainframes. Less common now because microcomputers have improved.

Microcomputers or Personal computers (PCs)

The most common type of computer.

Smaller, cheaper, and less powerful than mainframes and minicomputers.

Types of portable



About the size of a small typewriter.

Less common now because smaller and lighter portables are available.


About the size of a piece of writing paper. The most common type of portable.


Not quite as big as notebooks. Can fit into a jacket pocket.

Handheld or Palmtop

Small enough to fit into the palm of one hand. Not easy to type with because of their size. Specialized handheld computers known as PDAs are used as personal organizers.

c) Grammar Revision: Comparison

Study this comparison of three types of computer.
















1 We can compare one type of computer with another:

Minicomputers are bigger than microcomputers.

Mainframes are more expensive than microcomputers.

For negative comparisons, we can say:

Microcomputers are not as big as minicomputers.

Microcomputers are not as powerful as mainframes.
2 We can compare mainframes to all other types of computer:
Mainframes are the biggest computers.

Mainframes are the most powerful computers.

Mainframes are the most expensive computers.
With short adjectives (big, small, fast), we add -er and -est (faster, fastest).

With longer adjectives (powerful, expensive), we use more/less and the most/the least before the adjective (more powerful, the most powerful).

Remember these two exceptions:

good - better - the best bad - worse - the worst
d) Choose the correct adjective. Then fill in the gaps with the correct form of the adjective:
1 light/heavy

Laptops are 1___ than desktop computers, but 2___ than notebooks.

2 large/small

The mainframe is the 3___type of computer. A minicomputer is 4___ than a microcomputer.

3 common/good

Personal computers are 5___ than mainframes but mainframes are 6___ than personal computers at processing very large amounts of data.

4 powerful/expensive

Minicomputers are 7___than mainframes but they are also 8___.

5 fast/cheap

New computers are 9___ and sometimes 10___than older machines.

6 powerful/expensive

Laptops are often 11___ than PCs but they are not as 12___.

  1. In pairs, decide what sort of computer is best for each of these users:

1 John Wilmott is a salesperson and he spends a lot of time visiting customers. He wants a computer to carry with him so he can access data about his customers and record his sales.

2 Pat Nye is a personnel officer. She needs a computer to keep staff records and to keep a diary of appointments. She also needs a computer for writing letters.

3 The University of the North needs a computer to look after its accounts, its network, the records of all students and staff, and to help with scientific research.

4 The James family want a computer for entertainment, writing letters, the Internet, and for calculating tax.
f) Put the words in brackets into the correct form to make an accurate description of sizes of computers:
There are different types of computer. The (large)1___ and (powerful) 2___ are mainframe computers. Minicomputers are (small) 3___ than mainframes but are still very powerful. Microcomputers are small enough to sit on a desk. They are the (common) 4___ type of computer. They are usually (powerful) 5___ than minicomputers.

Portable computers are (small) 6___ than desktops. The (large) 7___ portable is a laptop. (Small) 8___ portables, about the size of a piece of writing paper, are called notebook computers. Subnotebooks are (small) 9___ than notebooks. You can hold the (small)10___ computers in one hand. They are called handheld computers or palmtop computers.

3 Listening
a) Listen to a short lecture given by John Griffiths, an expert on computer systems. As you listen, label the pictures below with the words in the box:

laptop, desktop PC, handheld, mainframe, minicomputer

b) Listen again and chose the correct answer:
1 According to the speaker,

a a mainframe computer is less powerful than a minicomputer,

b a mainframe is more powerful than a minicomputer.

2 Mainframe computers are used by:

a executives and businessmen.

b large organizations that need to process enormous amounts of data.

3 'Multi-tasking' means:

a doing a number of tasks at the same time,

b access to a minicomputer through terminals.

4 The most suitable computers for home use are

a minicomputers,

b desktop PCs.

5 Handheld computers are

a small enough to fit into the palm of one hand,

b bigger than laptops.
4 Reading

Read the extract from Dan Gooking’s book ‘Buying a Computer for Dummies’. Give a good translation of the extract; try to keep to the style of the author:
The traditional desktop computer
The original IBM PC is the prototype for all desktop computers. The main box, the console, sits flat and square on the desktop. The monitor perches on top of the console, and the keyboard sits in front. Despite this historical tradition, most PCs no longer resemble the IBM desktop original.

The most popular computer configuration now is the minitower model, which is like a desktop model turned on its side (see Figure 3-2). The minitower is more versatile than the old desktop style; you can set the console right next to the keyboard and monitor (as shown in Figure 3-2), or you can set the minitower on the floor and out of view.

PC is an acronym for personal computer. This name comes from the first IBM model, the IBM PC (International Business Machines Personal Computer).

- Before the IBM PC, personal computers were called microcomputers. It was a disparaging term because other computers of the day were much larger. They were called minicomputers and mainframes. Powerful things.

- The minitower is named that way because the original on-its-side PC was dubbed the tower model. Minitowers are more compact than full-size towers, and they lack much of the internal expansion room in larger models.

- Smaller desktop models are still available. They’re usually called smallfootprint computers. The footprint in this case is the amount of space the computer occupies on your desk.

- Small-footprint computers lack expandability options. For example, if you want AGP graphics, you may not find that expansion option in a small-footprint computer case.

- Some new-model PCs have both the console and the monitor in the same box. These systems don’t yet have an official nickname.




The final computer category I describe is the most ancient, but not gone or forgotten: the mainframe, or “big iron,” that used to do all the computing work before personal computers became popular in the late 1970s — and again at the turn of the 21st century.

Though mainframe computers were once thought to be doomed relics of the past, they’re now in high demand and selling better than some home-model computers.

Of course, as with high-end workstations and file servers, you probably won’t be purchasing a mainframe to help you send e-mail or balance your checkbook.

But, it’s a category of computer, so I had to list it here. Consider the term fodder for your next cocktail party.

- Actually, it would be kind of cool to have a mainframe, although I don’t know anyone on my street whom I could impress with the thing.

- Mainframes are also known as big iron.

- Supercomputer is another classification of computer, although it’s really like a mainframe. A supercomputer is specifically designed to do many tasks quickly. To create a supercomputer, a series of desktop computers are linked together so that they operate as one unit.
(Chapter 3: Computers from A to Z)
5 Listening
a) Listen to Part 1 of this conversation between a shop assistant and a customer. Tick (√) the correct the correct answers to these questions:
Buying a computer
1) The customer wants a computer for:

[ ] writing

[ ] graphics

[ ] games

[ ] Internet

[ ] video

2) A multimedia computer provides:

[ ] sound

[ ] graphics

[ ] animation

[ ] telephone

[ ] video

b) Listen to Part 2 of the conversation. In column A, tick the hardware items named:




Multimedia computer

Multimedia notebook







c) Listen again to the conversation. In column B, Tick the items the assistant recommends.
Portable Computers

1 Vocabulary

a) форма

b) связь

c) введение

d) ожидание

2) familiar

a) мгновенный

b) воображаемый

c) сложный

d) знакомый

3) link

a) форма

b) связь

c) введение

d) ожидание

4) imaginary

a) мгновенный

b) воображаемый

c) сложный

d) знакомый

5) require

a) ожидать

b) внедрять

c) развлекать

d) требовать

6) sophisticated

a) мгновенный

b) воображаемый

c) сложный

d) знакомый

7) introduction

a) форма

b) связь

c) введение

d) ожидание

8) entertain

a) ожидать

b) внедрять

c) развлекать

d) требовать

9) instant

a) мгновенный

b) воображаемый

c) сложный

d) знакомый

10) expectation

a) форма

b) связь

c) введение

d) ожидание

b) Match the words with their meanings:

1) forgive

2) courage

3) spreadsheet

4) medicine

5) convert

6) imagination

7) flight

8) requirement

9) subject

10) introduce

a) электронная таблица

b) воображение

c) требование

d) лекарство

e) прощать

f) внедрять

g) преобразовывать

h) мужество

i) рейс

j) предмет

c) Match the words with their definitions:

1) memo
2) prepare
3) gadget
4) schedule
5) bar code

6) pick up

7) link

8) appropriate

9) patient

10) advertising

a) a list of times of recurring events, projected operations, arriving and departing trains, etc.; timetable

b) especially suitable or compatible, assigned to a particular purpose or use

c) the action of calling something to the attention of the public especially by paid announcements

d) a short note written to help one remember something or remind one to do something

e) to take hold of and lift up

f) any interesting but relatively useless or unnecessary object

g) a code consisting of a group of printed and variously patterned bars and spaces and sometimes numerals that is designed to be scanned and read into computer memory and that contains information (as identification) about the object it labels

h) a connecting structure

i) bearing pains or trials calmly or without complaint

j) to make ready, usually for a specific purpose; make suitable; fit; adapt; train

2 Reading

a) Read the text and write a list of uses of the computer, or computer applications, add as many as you can think of. Discuss them with other students.
What can computers do?
Computers and microchips have become part of our everyday lives: we visit shops and offices which have been designed with the help of computers, we read magazines which have been produced on computer, we pay bills prepared by computers. Just picking up a telephone and dialling a number involves the use of a sophisticated computer system, as does making a flight reservation or bank transaction.

We encounter daily many computers that spring to life the instant they’re switched on (e.g. calculators, the car’s electronic ignition, the timer in the microwave, or the programmer inside the TV set), all of which use chip technology. What makes your computer such a miraculous device? Each time you turn it on, it is a tabula rasa (нечто чистое, нетронутое) that, with appropriate hardware and software, is capable of doing anything you ask. It is an electronic filing cabinet which manages large collections of data such as customers’ lists, accounts, or inventories. It is a magical typewriter that allows you to type and print any kind of document – letters, memos, or legal documents. It is a personal communicator that enables you to interact with people around the world. If you like gadgets and electronic entertainment, you can even use your PC to relax with computer games.

b) Tick (√) the computer uses mentioned in the following article:

[ ] home

[ ] art

[ ] hospitals

[ ] banking

[ ] engineering

[ ] libraries

[ ] shopping

[ ] film-making

[ ] television advertising

[ ] schools

Computers are part of our everyday lives. They have an effect on almost everything you do. When you buy groceries at a supermarket, a computer is used with laser and barcode technology to scan the price of each item and present a total. Barcoding items (clothes, food, and books) requires a computer to generate the barcode labels and maintain the inventory. Most television advertisements and many films use graphics produced by a computer. In hospitals, bedside terminals connected to the hospital's main computer allow doctors to type in orders for blood tests and to schedule operations. Banks use computers to look after their customers' money. In libraries and bookshops, computers can help you to find the book you want as quickly as possible.

3 Listening

Computers in everyday life
a) Match these words (1-8) to the correct locations (a-d):

1. games

2. machines

3. tickets

4. wages

5. flight

6. letters

7. barcode readers

8. tills

a. a factory

b. a supermarket

с. a travel agent

d. a home

b) Listen to the recording. Identify which place is described in each extract:

1 -

2 -

3 -

4 -

4 Writing
a) Match the places in column A with the computer uses in column B:








Control machines

Calculate the bill

Look after patient records and medicines

Provide entertainment and information

Control our money

b) Now fill in the gaps in the paragraph about computer uses:
Computers are now part of our everyday life. In shops, they 1 ____. In factories, they 2____. In 3____, they look after patient records and medicines. When we have a bank account, a computer 4____. In our homes, computers 5____.
5 Listening
a) Listen to a lecturer describing to the new students the way in which computers may be useful to them. As you listen for the first time, look a Figure 1:

As you know, in computing a common way of showing how things are related is to use a connectivity matrix.

Figure 1.


Business studies



Social Sciences

Computer Science

Physics and Chemistry

b) Now listen again and try to fill in the table to show how different people need different software (e.g. computer science students will need to know something about databases):

Social Science






Business Studies

General Sciences


word processing






financial software



operating systems

6 Summing-up

What do you use your computer for?

What features are the most important for you?

Unit C. Computer Uses (2): Word Processing
1 vocabulary







artificial intelligence (AI)
to forget (forgot, forgotten)
to spell


to invite


hide (hid, hidden)
to prefer


to split
to correspond (with, to)


to substitute


to retrieve


to recover


to outline

to underline

to notify


to define



to proof-read

to prove

to pronounce

to strike

to strike through

a) chose the correct translation:
1) fashion

a) произношение

b) написание

c) мода

d) определение

2) spelling

a) произношение

b) написание

c) мода

d) определение

3) neat

a) аккуратный

b) предпочтительный

c) очевидный

d) обычный

4) to define

a) прятать

b) заменять

c) определять

d) соответствовать

5) to substitute

a) прятать

b) заменять

c) определять

d) соответствовать

6) pronunciation

a) произношение

b) написание

c) мода

d) определение

7) to hide

a) прятать

b) заменять

c) определять

d) соответствовать

8) obvious

a) аккуратный

b) предпочтительный

c) очевидный

d) обычный

9) to correspond

a) прятать

b) заменять

c) определять

d) соответствовать

10) plain

a) аккуратный

b) предпочтительный

c) очевидный

d) обычный

b) Match the words with their meanings:

1) notification

2) age

3) prove

4) shadow

5) preference

6) underline

7) fashionable

8) invitation

9) amount

10) significant

a) предпочтение

b) подчеркивать

c) уведомление

d) важный

e) доказывать

f) приглашение

g) количество

h) возраст

i) модный

j) тень

c) Match the words with their definitions:

1) significance

2) recovery

3) bold

4) outline

5) spell

6) strike through

7) typeface

8) intelligence

9) invite

10) retrieval

a) a regaining of something lost or stolen

b) the process of searching for and obtaining data from a computer system

c) put a line through (e.g. a word)

d) the power of learning, understanding and knowing; mental ability

e) darker than other text on the printed page

f) show shapes or boundaries

g) ask to come or to go somewhere

h) importance

i) the design of letters and characters

j) name or write the letters of a word

d) Find synonyms:
important –

to divide –

to report –

evidence –

to hit –
2 Reading and Discussion
Word processing: For and Against
a) Discuss the questions:
1) Do you like writing by hand? Why? / Why not?

  1. What is a word processor?

  2. What is the difference between handwriting, typing and word processing?

  3. Have you ever used a typewriter or word processor? Which word processor?

  4. What makes word processor superior to traditional typewriters?

  5. Make a list of the most important features offered by word processors.

b) Read and translate the sentences from the text:
1) By this time millions of typewriters were in use, and in countries using Roman alphabet, very few official letters and documents were still being handwritten.

2) Some people remain nostalgic for the old-fashioned typewriter, though.

3) Most significantly, perhaps, with no easy correction, sentences have to be fully thought – just before they are committed to paper – an intellectual discipline perhaps in danger of being forgotten in the age of cut, copy, paste and delete.

4) You have more formatting choices with a word processor, and the spelling, grammar and language tools are useful, too.

5) Many people use a text editor for the Internet, which is similar to a word processor but has fewer formatting features and cannot use graphics.
c) Read the text about typewriters and find out their advantages and disadvantages:
The earliest recorded attempt to produce a mechanical writing device was in 1714, but the first useable typewriter was produced by Remington in 1873. It had most of the features of later machines, except that it typed only in capital letters. With the addition of lower case (“small”) letters in 1878, the basic design was in place.

Portable typewriters appeared in 1912, and electric machines became available in 1925. By this time millions of typewriters were in use, and in countries using Roman alphabet, very few official letters and documents were still being handwritten.

Although typewriters are still manufactured in small quantities, they have largely been replaced by computer word-processing applications. Some people remain nostalgic for the old-fashioned typewriter, though. It requires no electricity, no separate printer and no expensive ink cartridges (a single ribbon will type hundreds of pages, and is quick and cheap to replace). Most significantly, perhaps, with no easy correction, sentences have to be fully thought – just before they are committed to paper – an intellectual discipline perhaps in danger of being forgotten in the age of cut, copy, paste and delete.
d) Read the text about word processors and find their advantages in the first paragraph and disadvantages in the second:

The case for and against WORD PROCESSING
People use word processors for writing all kinds of documents, such as letters, school papers and reports. Word processors have many advantages over handwriting and manual typewriters. word processing is faster and easier than writing by hand and you can store documents on your computer, which you cannot usually do on a typewriter. This makes it easier to review and rewrite your documents. You have more formatting choices with a word processor, and the spelling, grammar and language tools are useful, too. You can also print copies of your documents, which look neater than handwritten ones. Many language students use word processors to improve their writing skills and because they help them feel proud of their work.

Word processors do have disadvantages, however. First, it is not easy to read long documents on a computer screen. Second, sometimes the printer does not print an exact copy of what you see on the screen. Not all word processors can read each other’s files, which is another disadvantage. Finally, word processors do not always work well with e-mail. If you paste a word processed letter into an e-mail it may lose a lot of its formatting. Many people use a text editor for the Internet, which is similar to a word processor but has fewer formatting features and cannot use graphics. Text editors, such as Notepad, use a simple coding system called ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange), as does e-mail.

e) Decide if the sentences are true (T) or false (F). Change the false sentences to make them true:

1. you can store letters on a manual typewriter.

2. You can change your documents easily on a word processor.

3. Printed documents look better than handwriting.

4. Improving your writing is more difficult with a word processor.

5. Word processors work well with e-mail.

f) Match the words and phrases in the text with their definitions:
1. by hand, not electronic ___

2. the way a program organizes data ___

3. a program used for simple text files ___

4. the code that e-mail uses ___

5. things that a program has, or can do ___

6. a program used for text and graphics ___

g) Which of these documents would you write by hand and which on a word processor?

a formal letter, an informal letter, an invitation to a party, a birthday card, a shopping list, an application form, a note to your friend, a school report, a ‘for sale’ notice
1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9

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